Neoplasms... Dun Dun Dunnnnn Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Neoplasms... Dun Dun Dunnnnn Deck (111)
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1

a growth that usually does not cause cancer or have the capability to cause

Benign

2

a growth that has the capability of causing cancer and

malignant

3

A malignant neoplasm

Cancer

4

any abnormal growth of new cells aka tumor
• Not all form tumor masses (leukemia)
• Can be benign or malignant

Neoplasm

5

a growth that can be benign or malignant
• Named after the cells from which they arise

Tumor

6

the study of neoplasms

Oncology

7

Number one cancer for females

Breast Cancer

8

Number one cancer for males

Prostate Cancer

9

Number one cancer that kills

Lung Cancer

10

7 Hallmarks of Cancer

1. Self-sufficiency of growth (“go”) signals
2. Evasion of growth suppression
3. Cells divide indefinably (unlimited reproduction
4. Avoid apoptosis (programmed cell death)
5. Recruit nutrients via growth of new blood supply (angiogenesis)
6. Invade nearby tissue and spread to distant tissue (malignant neoplasms only)
7. Evade immune surveillance

11

Cause of cancer

• Damage to DNA- root cause of all neoplasms

12

T/F- • Most of the time the link between disease and behavior or environment is not obvious

True

13

Environmental factors that stimulate cancer development

-Chemicals
-Dyes
-UV light
-Viruses
-Chronic Inflammation
-Smoked Food
-Genetically predisposed cancer

14

4 Categories of Mutant Genes

1. Proto-oncogenes
2. Tumor Suppressor Genes
3. Genes that regulate apoptosis
4. DNA repair genes

15

o The “go” genes
o RAS genes-control the transcription of genes that control cell growth and proliferation
o Overexpression and amplification of cell growth

Proto-oncogenes

16

Characteristics of Proto-Oncogenes

 RAS Attaches to a GTP to turn the cell growth on
 Off- destruction of GTP molecule

17

90% of this cancer are caused by RAS genes

Pancreatic Cancer

18

o The “stop” switches that restrain cell growth by producing proteins that inhibit cell dividing – stop to repair or destroy so the bad cell growth doesn’t continue
o If damage occurs here- the cells divide uncontrollably

Tumor Suppressor Genes

19

This is a mutant tumor suppressor gene that causes 50% or more of cancers

P53 gene

20

This gene encourages breast cancer

BRCA gene

21

Characteristics of the BRCA gene

-Can genetic test to see if you have this mutation
-• Not allow for repair of damage DNA
 If you have a mutation in the BRCA gene it doesn’t allow for the P53 gene

22

T/F- * Carcinogenesis is a multistep process- no single mutation is capable of causing a neoplasm- cancers arise from the accumulation of multiple mutations

True

23

Inheritable germ cell defects- increase risk of cancer to a certain degree but they do not guarantee it

• Inheritable cancer syndromes:

24

chaotic cell growth (reversible and so is metaplasia)
o When it becomes serious it is called carcinoma in situ

Dysplasia

25

o Confined to the epithelium- can’t reach blood vessels so it is not invasive

carcinoma in situ

26

What is the slowest process of malignancy?

The initial mutation to occur and develop

27

T/F- • Neoplasms grow by forming a clone

True

28

a tumor composed of multiple sets of cells that differ a little from all of the rest

Tumor Cell Heterogeneity

29

Describe survival of the fittest in neoplasm

o Highly malignant cells tend to survive and the less malignant cells die
o Tumors that find/have a blood supply are the most likely to survive
o Tumor cells have exponential growth

30

the fraction of dividing cells- determines the cell growth rate

Growth Fraction