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Flashcards in GI infections Deck (183):
1

Herpes simple is latent where

Trigeminal ganglia

2

Herpes simple is latent where

Trigeminal ganglia

3

Herpes simple is latent where

Trigeminal ganglia

4

Two viral pharyngitis causes
One bacteria
One parasite

EBV
CMV
Group A strep
Toxoplasmosis

5

Thrush is described how?
Patient type

White plaques on tongue capable of being scraped off
Immunocompromised

6

Hand-foot-and mouth disease.
Age
Begins how (3)
Form with painful vesicular lesions in throat

Kids
Mild fever + Sores in mouth + Skin rash
Herpangina

7

H. pylori
Infection leads to what in stomach
Responsible for most of what two things
Two associated cancers

Increased acid production
Chronic gastritis + peptic ulcer disease
Gastric carcinoma and MALT lymphoma

8

Three most common causes of enterocolitis
What is most common

Rotavirus
Calciviruses
ETEC
Unknown cause most often

9

Define diarrhea

Increase in mass, frequency or fluidity as perceived by patient.

10

Define dysentery

Painful bloody diarrhea

11

3 bacterial mechanisms of infectious diarrhea

Ingestion of preformed toxins
Enterotoxin
Enteroinvasion and cytotoxicity

12

Lab assessment of secretory diarrhea finds what?

No blood or leukocytes present

13

Lab assessment of exudative diarrhea finds what?

Blood and/or leukocytes present

14

Secretory diarrhea is mainly concerned with what mechanism?

Enterotoxin production

15

Rotavirus
What age
Cells infected
Resulting loss
Title
Seasonality
Primary symptom lasts how long
How to test
Vaccine

Children
Mature enterocytes
Loss of absorptive ability
Most common cause of diarrhea in kids
Winter seasonal pattern
8 days
Immunoassay for stool antigen
New vaccine just out

16

Norovirus
Responsible for most of what
Two symptoms
Seasonality
DIagnosed how (3)
Most common source

Nonspecific diarrhea
12-60 hours of Vomiting and diarrhea
Summer diarrhea
RIA, PCR, electron microscopy
Contaminated water and food at nursing homes and cruise ships

17

Adenovirus
Age
Diagnosis

4 years old or less
Latex agglutination on stool samples

18

3 path changes in viral enterocolitis

Shortening of villi
Lymphocytosis of lamina propria
Hyperplasia of crypt cells

19

Vibrio cholera
Severity
Primary sign
Main mechanism of path
How to treat
Diagnosis

High mortality in untreated due to fluid loss
Rice water stools
Cholera toxin
Supportive care
Stool culture finds yellow colonies on TCBS medium

20

ETEC
Common cause of
Recovery type
Two path mechanisms
Inflammation involved
Diarrhea type

Traveler's diarrhea
Self-limited
Heat stable toxin and heat labile toxin
No inflammation
Watery diarrhea

21

EPEC occurs in what age

Pediatric patients

22

EHEC
Primary strain
Associated with what complication in kids
Toxin type
Effect in blood
How to diagnose
Two common causes

0157:H7
Hemolytic uremic syndrome in kids
Shiga-toxin like
Causes platelet aggregation and thrombus
Peripheral smear with schistocytes
Incompletely cooked meat and petting zoos

23

EIEC
Symptoms identical to what disease
Two symptoms
Utilize what to enter intestinal cells
What toxins

Shigella
Diarrhea and fever
Adhesin proteins allow them to be very invasive
No toxins made

24

Staph food poisoning
Cause of diarrhea
Common situation
type of toxin
recovery length

Preformed toxin
Picnics
Heat stable toxin
2-3 days

25

Bacillus cereus
Cause of diarrhea
Associated with what
Two toxins, each associated with what

Preformed toxins
Cereals like rice
Emetic toxin: Vomiting within 6 hours
Enterotoxin: Diarrhea disease between 6 and 15 hours after eating

26

Clostridium perfringens
Cause of diarrhea
Associated with what
Title

Preformed toxin
Poorly cooked pork
Third most common food borne diarrhea cause

27

Campylobacteri Jejuni
Presentation
Common with ingesting what (3)
Septicemic form
Identify how
Title

Bloody diarrhea with cramping
Poultry + Water + Raw milk
Campylobacter fetus
Stool culture
Most common invasive diarrhea in US

28

Salmonella typhi
Type of diarrhea
Primarily occurs when
Tissue change seen
How to diagnose
Common sign of disease

Invasive diarrhea
Septicemic form of salmonella
Ulcerated peyer's patches
Positive blood cultures
Rose spots from typhoid fever

29

Salmonella paratyphoid group
Two parts of presentation
Species
Old diagnosis
new diagnosis

Bacteremia + GI presentation
S. enteritidis
O and H typing
Genetic analysis

30

Shigella
Presentation
Bacteremic?
Flexneri is major cause of what
Three signs
Associated symptom

Invasive diarrhea
No
Endemic disease
Mucosal ulceration, Rectal bleed + Dehydration
Reiter syndrome

31

C. Diff
Two toxins
Other name for disease
Associated with what use
Sign in bowel
Title
Why
New virulent strain
Why is it bad

Enterotoxin A and Enterotoxin B
Pseudomembranous colitis
Antimicrobial use
Plaques on bowel
Most common infectious diarrhea in hospitals
Spores spread
B1/NAP1 strain
Produces 20X as much A and B toxin

32

Yersinia enterocolitica
Presentation
Mimics what two diseases
How
Most common in what locations
Spread how (2)

Invasion with ulceration
Mimics Crohn's disease and acute appendicitis
Mesenteric granulomatous lymphadenitis
Northern lattitudes
Milk and meat

33

Yersinia pseudotuberculosis causes what

Disease similar to Y. enterocolitica

34

Cryptosporidium parvum
Causes what
First observed in what
Makes this what type of disease
Infective dose
Places to acquire it (2)
Prolonged in who
Seasonality

Watery diarrhea
Scouring calves
Zoonosis
As small as one oocyst
Swimming pools + Cattle feedlots
Immunocompromised
Summer

35

Entamoeba histolytica
Primary histo finding
Liver abscess appears how
Special feature of this disease

Flask shaped ulcers of mucosa
Anchovy paste
Actually digests red blood cells

36

Giardia
Type of diarrhea
Excreted in poop of what animals (4)
Common place to get it

Malabsorption diarrhea
Bears, cats, dogs, beaver
Daycare centers

37

Nematode: Ascaris lubricoides
From fecal oral to where
Can cause what in GI

Liver to lungs
intestinal obstruction

38

Nematode: Strongyloides
Path into body
Go to what organ to induce what
How does it get to GI

Live in ground and penetrate bare feet
Lungs --> Eosinophilic
Larvae are swallowed into GI tract

39

Nematodes: Hookworms (Necatora/Ancyclostoma)
Enter body how
Get to GI how
Main manifestation

Live in ground and penetrate bare feet
Larvae are swallowed into GI tract
Iron deficiency anemia from blood loss

40

Nematodes: Enterobius
Live where
Females do what at night
Result
Place to get it
Diagnostic

Large bowel lumen
Females go perianal at night to lay eggs
Pruritus ani
Day care center
Scotch tape test

41

Cestodes
How to get it
How do they attach to mucosa

Undercooked meat with larvae
Scolex

42

Cestode diphyllobothrium latum associated with what deficiency

B12

43

Five F's of Food borne illness

Feces
Flies
Fingers
Fomites
Food

44

Diarrhea after traveling to boundary waters, Moscow, or Colorado?

Giardia

45

Diarrhea after going to mexico

ETEC

46

Diarrhea after going to africa or Haiti?

Vibrio cholera

47

Diarrhea after antibiotic medications?

C. Difficile

48

Diarrhea in less than 3 years olds?

Rotavirus

49

Diarrhea in nursing home

Norrovirus

50

Diarrhea in toddler at day care center

Giardia

51

DIarrhea in hospitalized adults

C. diff

52

Diarrhea from canning

C. botulinum

53

Diarrhea from milk

Campy

54

Diarrhea in summer (2)

Cryptosporidium
Norwalk

55

Diarrhea in winter

Rotavirus

56

Diarrhea in 1-6 hours

S. aureus

57

Diarrhea in 1-8 hours

B. cereus

58

Diarrhea in 1-12 hours

C. perfringens

59

Diarrhea in 8-48 hours

Salmonella

60

Diarrhea in 1-3 days

Virus

61

Diarrhea in 1-7 days

Shigellz

62

Diarrhea in 5-25 days

Giardia

63

Mucousy diarrhea cause

Giardia

64

Two viral pharyngitis causes
One bacteria
One parasite

EBV
CMV
Group A strep
Toxoplasmosis

65

Thrush is described how?
Patient type

White plaques on tongue capable of being scraped off
Immunocompromised

66

Hand-foot-and mouth disease.
Age
Begins how (3)
Form with painful vesicular lesions in throat

Kids
Mild fever + Sores in mouth + Skin rash
Herpangina

67

H. pylori
Infection leads to what in stomach
Responsible for most of what two things
Two associated cancers

Increased acid production
Chronic gastritis + peptic ulcer disease
Gastric carcinoma and MALT lymphoma

68

Three most common causes of enterocolitis
What is most common

Rotavirus
Calciviruses
ETEC
Unknown cause most often

69

Define diarrhea

Increase in mass, frequency or fluidity as perceived by patient.

70

Define dysentery

Painful bloody diarrhea

71

3 bacterial mechanisms of infectious diarrhea

Ingestion of preformed toxins
Enterotoxin
Enteroinvasion and cytotoxicity

72

Lab assessment of secretory diarrhea finds what?

No blood or leukocytes present

73

Lab assessment of exudative diarrhea finds what?

Blood and/or leukocytes present

74

Secretory diarrhea is mainly concerned with what mechanism?

Enterotoxin production

75

Rotavirus
What age
Cells infected
Resulting loss
Title
Seasonality
Primary symptom lasts how long
How to test
Vaccine

Children
Mature enterocytes
Loss of absorptive ability
Most common cause of diarrhea in kids
Winter seasonal pattern
8 days
Immunoassay for stool antigen
New vaccine just out

76

Norovirus
Responsible for most of what
Two symptoms
Seasonality
DIagnosed how (3)
Most common source

Nonspecific diarrhea
12-60 hours of Vomiting and diarrhea
Summer diarrhea
RIA, PCR, electron microscopy
Contaminated water and food at nursing homes and cruise ships

77

Adenovirus
Age
Diagnosis

4 years old or less
Latex agglutination on stool samples

78

3 path changes in viral enterocolitis

Shortening of villi
Lymphocytosis of lamina propria
Hyperplasia of crypt cells

79

Vibrio cholera
Severity
Primary sign
Main mechanism of path
How to treat
Diagnosis

High mortality in untreated due to fluid loss
Rice water stools
Cholera toxin
Supportive care
Stool culture finds yellow colonies on TCBS medium

80

ETEC
Common cause of
Recovery type
Two path mechanisms
Inflammation involved
Diarrhea type

Traveler's diarrhea
Self-limited
Heat stable toxin and heat labile toxin
No inflammation
Watery diarrhea

81

EPEC occurs in what age

Pediatric patients

82

EHEC
Primary strain
Associated with what complication in kids
Toxin type
Effect in blood
How to diagnose
Two common causes

0157:H7
Hemolytic uremic syndrome in kids
Shiga-toxin like
Causes platelet aggregation and thrombus
Peripheral smear with schistocytes
Incompletely cooked meat and petting zoos

83

EIEC
Symptoms identical to what disease
Two symptoms
Utilize what to enter intestinal cells
What toxins

Shigella
Diarrhea and fever
Adhesin proteins allow them to be very invasive
No toxins made

84

Staph food poisoning
Cause of diarrhea
Common situation
type of toxin
recovery length

Preformed toxin
Picnics
Heat stable toxin
2-3 days

85

Bacillus cereus
Cause of diarrhea
Associated with what
Two toxins, each associated with what

Preformed toxins
Cereals like rice
Emetic toxin: Vomiting within 6 hours
Enterotoxin: Diarrhea disease between 6 and 15 hours after eating

86

Clostridium perfringens
Cause of diarrhea
Associated with what
Title

Preformed toxin
Poorly cooked pork
Third most common food borne diarrhea cause

87

Campylobacteri Jejuni
Presentation
Common with ingesting what (3)
Septicemic form
Identify how
Title

Bloody diarrhea with cramping
Poultry + Water + Raw milk
Campylobacter fetus
Stool culture
Most common invasive diarrhea in US

88

Salmonella typhi
Type of diarrhea
Primarily occurs when
Tissue change seen
How to diagnose
Common sign of disease

Invasive diarrhea
Septicemic form of salmonella
Ulcerated peyer's patches
Positive blood cultures
Rose spots from typhoid fever

89

Salmonella paratyphoid group
Two parts of presentation
Species
Old diagnosis
new diagnosis

Bacteremia + GI presentation
S. enteritidis
O and H typing
Genetic analysis

90

Shigella
Presentation
Bacteremic?
Flexneri is major cause of what
Three signs
Associated symptom

Invasive diarrhea
No
Endemic disease
Mucosal ulceration, Rectal bleed + Dehydration
Reiter syndrome

91

C. Diff
Two toxins
Other name for disease
Associated with what use
Sign in bowel
Title
Why
New virulent strain
Why is it bad

Enterotoxin A and Enterotoxin B
Pseudomembranous colitis
Antimicrobial use
Plaques on bowel
Most common infectious diarrhea in hospitals
Spores spread
B1/NAP1 strain
Produces 20X as much A and B toxin

92

Yersinia enterocolitica
Presentation
Mimics what two diseases
How
Most common in what locations
Spread how (2)

Invasion with ulceration
Mimics Crohn's disease and acute appendicitis
Mesenteric granulomatous lymphadenitis
Northern lattitudes
Milk and meat

93

Yersinia pseudotuberculosis causes what

Disease similar to Y. enterocolitica

94

Cryptosporidium parvum
Causes what
First observed in what
Makes this what type of disease
Infective dose
Places to acquire it (2)
Prolonged in who
Seasonality

Watery diarrhea
Scouring calves
Zoonosis
As small as one oocyst
Swimming pools + Cattle feedlots
Immunocompromised
Summer

95

Entamoeba histolytica
Primary histo finding
Liver abscess appears how
Special feature of this disease

Flask shaped ulcers of mucosa
Anchovy paste
Actually digests red blood cells

96

Giardia
Type of diarrhea
Excreted in poop of what animals (4)
Common place to get it

Malabsorption diarrhea
Bears, cats, dogs, beaver
Daycare centers

97

Nematode: Ascaris lubricoides
From fecal oral to where
Can cause what in GI

Liver to lungs
intestinal obstruction

98

Nematode: Strongyloides
Path into body
Go to what organ to induce what
How does it get to GI

Live in ground and penetrate bare feet
Lungs --> Eosinophilic
Larvae are swallowed into GI tract

99

Nematodes: Hookworms (Necatora/Ancyclostoma)
Enter body how
Get to GI how
Main manifestation

Live in ground and penetrate bare feet
Larvae are swallowed into GI tract
Iron deficiency anemia from blood loss

100

Nematodes: Enterobius
Live where
Females do what at night
Result
Place to get it
Diagnostic

Large bowel lumen
Females go perianal at night to lay eggs
Pruritus ani
Day care center
Scotch tape test

101

Cestodes
How to get it
How do they attach to mucosa

Undercooked meat with larvae
Scolex

102

Cestode diphyllobothrium latum associated with what deficiency

B12

103

Five F's of Food borne illness

Feces
Flies
Fingers
Fomites
Food

104

Diarrhea after traveling to boundary waters, Moscow, or Colorado?

Giardia

105

Diarrhea after going to mexico

ETEC

106

Diarrhea after going to africa or Haiti?

Vibrio cholera

107

Diarrhea after antibiotic medications?

C. Difficile

108

Diarrhea in less than 3 years olds?

Rotavirus

109

Diarrhea in nursing home

Norrovirus

110

Diarrhea in toddler at day care center

Giardia

111

DIarrhea in hospitalized adults

C. diff

112

Diarrhea from canning

C. botulinum

113

Diarrhea from milk

Campy

114

Diarrhea in summer (2)

Cryptosporidium
Norwalk

115

Diarrhea in winter

Rotavirus

116

Diarrhea in 1-6 hours

S. aureus

117

Diarrhea in 1-8 hours

B. cereus

118

Diarrhea in 1-12 hours

C. perfringens

119

Diarrhea in 8-48 hours

Salmonella

120

Diarrhea in 1-3 days

Virus

121

Diarrhea in 1-7 days

Shigellz

122

Diarrhea in 5-25 days

Giardia

123

Mucousy diarrhea cause

Giardia

124

Two viral pharyngitis causes
One bacteria
One parasite

EBV
CMV
Group A strep
Toxoplasmosis

125

Thrush is described how?
Patient type

White plaques on tongue capable of being scraped off
Immunocompromised

126

Hand-foot-and mouth disease.
Age
Begins how (3)
Form with painful vesicular lesions in throat

Kids
Mild fever + Sores in mouth + Skin rash
Herpangina

127

H. pylori
Infection leads to what in stomach
Responsible for most of what two things
Two associated cancers

Increased acid production
Chronic gastritis + peptic ulcer disease
Gastric carcinoma and MALT lymphoma

128

Three most common causes of enterocolitis
What is most common

Rotavirus
Calciviruses
ETEC
Unknown cause most often

129

Define diarrhea

Increase in mass, frequency or fluidity as perceived by patient.

130

Define dysentery

Painful bloody diarrhea

131

3 bacterial mechanisms of infectious diarrhea

Ingestion of preformed toxins
Enterotoxin
Enteroinvasion and cytotoxicity

132

Lab assessment of secretory diarrhea finds what?

No blood or leukocytes present

133

Lab assessment of exudative diarrhea finds what?

Blood and/or leukocytes present

134

Secretory diarrhea is mainly concerned with what mechanism?

Enterotoxin production

135

Rotavirus
What age
Cells infected
Resulting loss
Title
Seasonality
Primary symptom lasts how long
How to test
Vaccine

Children
Mature enterocytes
Loss of absorptive ability
Most common cause of diarrhea in kids
Winter seasonal pattern
8 days
Immunoassay for stool antigen
New vaccine just out

136

Norovirus
Responsible for most of what
Two symptoms
Seasonality
DIagnosed how (3)
Most common source

Nonspecific diarrhea
12-60 hours of Vomiting and diarrhea
Summer diarrhea
RIA, PCR, electron microscopy
Contaminated water and food at nursing homes and cruise ships

137

Adenovirus
Age
Diagnosis

4 years old or less
Latex agglutination on stool samples

138

3 path changes in viral enterocolitis

Shortening of villi
Lymphocytosis of lamina propria
Hyperplasia of crypt cells

139

Vibrio cholera
Severity
Primary sign
Main mechanism of path
How to treat
Diagnosis

High mortality in untreated due to fluid loss
Rice water stools
Cholera toxin
Supportive care
Stool culture finds yellow colonies on TCBS medium

140

ETEC
Common cause of
Recovery type
Two path mechanisms
Inflammation involved
Diarrhea type

Traveler's diarrhea
Self-limited
Heat stable toxin and heat labile toxin
No inflammation
Watery diarrhea

141

EPEC occurs in what age

Pediatric patients

142

EHEC
Primary strain
Associated with what complication in kids
Toxin type
Effect in blood
How to diagnose
Two common causes

0157:H7
Hemolytic uremic syndrome in kids
Shiga-toxin like
Causes platelet aggregation and thrombus
Peripheral smear with schistocytes
Incompletely cooked meat and petting zoos

143

EIEC
Symptoms identical to what disease
Two symptoms
Utilize what to enter intestinal cells
What toxins

Shigella
Diarrhea and fever
Adhesin proteins allow them to be very invasive
No toxins made

144

Staph food poisoning
Cause of diarrhea
Common situation
type of toxin
recovery length

Preformed toxin
Picnics
Heat stable toxin
2-3 days

145

Bacillus cereus
Cause of diarrhea
Associated with what
Two toxins, each associated with what

Preformed toxins
Cereals like rice
Emetic toxin: Vomiting within 6 hours
Enterotoxin: Diarrhea disease between 6 and 15 hours after eating

146

Clostridium perfringens
Cause of diarrhea
Associated with what
Title

Preformed toxin
Poorly cooked pork
Third most common food borne diarrhea cause

147

Campylobacteri Jejuni
Presentation
Common with ingesting what (3)
Septicemic form
Identify how
Title

Bloody diarrhea with cramping
Poultry + Water + Raw milk
Campylobacter fetus
Stool culture
Most common invasive diarrhea in US

148

Salmonella typhi
Type of diarrhea
Primarily occurs when
Tissue change seen
How to diagnose
Common sign of disease

Invasive diarrhea
Septicemic form of salmonella
Ulcerated peyer's patches
Positive blood cultures
Rose spots from typhoid fever

149

Salmonella paratyphoid group
Two parts of presentation
Species
Old diagnosis
new diagnosis

Bacteremia + GI presentation
S. enteritidis
O and H typing
Genetic analysis

150

Shigella
Presentation
Bacteremic?
Flexneri is major cause of what
Three signs
Associated symptom

Invasive diarrhea
No
Endemic disease
Mucosal ulceration, Rectal bleed + Dehydration
Reiter syndrome

151

C. Diff
Two toxins
Other name for disease
Associated with what use
Sign in bowel
Title
Why
New virulent strain
Why is it bad

Enterotoxin A and Enterotoxin B
Pseudomembranous colitis
Antimicrobial use
Plaques on bowel
Most common infectious diarrhea in hospitals
Spores spread
B1/NAP1 strain
Produces 20X as much A and B toxin

152

Yersinia enterocolitica
Presentation
Mimics what two diseases
How
Most common in what locations
Spread how (2)

Invasion with ulceration
Mimics Crohn's disease and acute appendicitis
Mesenteric granulomatous lymphadenitis
Northern lattitudes
Milk and meat

153

Yersinia pseudotuberculosis causes what

Disease similar to Y. enterocolitica

154

Cryptosporidium parvum
Causes what
First observed in what
Makes this what type of disease
Infective dose
Places to acquire it (2)
Prolonged in who
Seasonality

Watery diarrhea
Scouring calves
Zoonosis
As small as one oocyst
Swimming pools + Cattle feedlots
Immunocompromised
Summer

155

Entamoeba histolytica
Primary histo finding
Liver abscess appears how
Special feature of this disease

Flask shaped ulcers of mucosa
Anchovy paste
Actually digests red blood cells

156

Giardia
Type of diarrhea
Excreted in poop of what animals (4)
Common place to get it

Malabsorption diarrhea
Bears, cats, dogs, beaver
Daycare centers

157

Nematode: Ascaris lubricoides
From fecal oral to where
Can cause what in GI

Liver to lungs
intestinal obstruction

158

Nematode: Strongyloides
Path into body
Go to what organ to induce what
How does it get to GI

Live in ground and penetrate bare feet
Lungs --> Eosinophilic
Larvae are swallowed into GI tract

159

Nematodes: Hookworms (Necatora/Ancyclostoma)
Enter body how
Get to GI how
Main manifestation

Live in ground and penetrate bare feet
Larvae are swallowed into GI tract
Iron deficiency anemia from blood loss

160

Nematodes: Enterobius
Live where
Females do what at night
Result
Place to get it
Diagnostic

Large bowel lumen
Females go perianal at night to lay eggs
Pruritus ani
Day care center
Scotch tape test

161

Cestodes
How to get it
How do they attach to mucosa

Undercooked meat with larvae
Scolex

162

Cestode diphyllobothrium latum associated with what deficiency

B12

163

Five F's of Food borne illness

Feces
Flies
Fingers
Fomites
Food

164

Diarrhea after traveling to boundary waters, Moscow, or Colorado?

Giardia

165

Diarrhea after going to mexico

ETEC

166

Diarrhea after going to africa or Haiti?

Vibrio cholera

167

Diarrhea after antibiotic medications?

C. Difficile

168

Diarrhea in less than 3 years olds?

Rotavirus

169

Diarrhea in nursing home

Norrovirus

170

Diarrhea in toddler at day care center

Giardia

171

DIarrhea in hospitalized adults

C. diff

172

Diarrhea from canning

C. botulinum

173

Diarrhea from milk

Campy

174

Diarrhea in summer (2)

Cryptosporidium
Norwalk

175

Diarrhea in winter

Rotavirus

176

Diarrhea in 1-6 hours

S. aureus

177

Diarrhea in 1-8 hours

B. cereus

178

Diarrhea in 1-12 hours

C. perfringens

179

Diarrhea in 8-48 hours

Salmonella

180

Diarrhea in 1-3 days

Virus

181

Diarrhea in 1-7 days

Shigellz

182

Diarrhea in 5-25 days

Giardia

183

Mucousy diarrhea cause

Giardia