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Flashcards in GI Path: Pathoma + BRS + First Aid Deck (59):
1

Cleft lip and palate definition

Full-thickness defect of lip or palate

2

Cause of cleft lip and palate?

Failure of facial prominences to fuse

3

How does the face normally develop?

5 facial prominences grow and fuse together to form the face

4

Do cleft lip and palate usually happen separately or together?

Usually together

5

Define aphthous ulcer

Painful superficial ulceration of oral mucosa

6

Aphthous ulcer arises in relation to what?
Can it reoccur?

Stress

Yes

7

What is it called when an aphthous ulcer has recurrences?

Aphthous stomatitis

8

How does an aphthous ulcer appear?

Gray base of granulation tissue surrounded by erythema

9

What is Behcet syndrome's triad of symptoms?

1. Aphthous ulcers
2. Genital ulcers
3. Uveitis

10

What does Behcet syndrome sometimes follow?

Viral infection

11

Oral herpes begins how?
What does this result in?

Vesicles in oral mucosa that rupture

Shallow, painful, red ulcers

12

Cause of Oral herpes?

HSV-1 usually

13

Primary infection of oral herpes occurs when?
Where does the virus remain dormant?

Childhood

Ganglia of the trigeminal nerve

14

What causes reactivation of oral herpes? 5

Stress
Sunlight
Illness
Trauma
Menstruation

15

Reactivation of HSV-1 results in what?

Vesicles on lips known as cold sores

16

Squamous cell carcinoma definition?

Malignant neoplasm of squamous cells lining the oral mucosa

17

Major risk factors of squamous cell carcinoma? 2

1. Tobacco
2. Alcohol

18

Most common location of squamous cell carcinoma?

Floor of the mouth

19

Two precursor lesions to squamous cell carcinoma?

1. Leukoplakia
2. Erythroplakia

20

What is leukoplakia?

White plaque dysplasia that cannot be scraped away.

21

What is oral candidiasis?
Cause?
Seen in what type of patients?

White deposit on tongue that is easily scraped away.

Cause = Candida albicans

Patients = Immunocompromised patients

22

Hairy leukoplakia definition

Cause

Patient group

White rough hairy patch that arises on lateral tongue.

EBV-induced squamous cell hyperplasia

Immunocompromised (AIDS)

23

Erythroplakia represents what?

What does it suggest?

Vascularized leukoplakia

Squamous cell dysplasia

24

Why are erythroplakia and leukoplakia biopsied?

Rule out carcinoma

25

What is acute necrotizing ulcerative gingivitis?

Trench mouth, Vincent infection, fusospirochetosis

26

Acute necrotizing ulcerative gingivitis is seen in what patients?

What is the cause

Immunocompromised

Concurrent infection with symbiotic bacteria usually fusobacterium and borrelia vincentii

27

What is most common benign epithelial tumor of oral mucosa?
Where does it occur most often (4)

Papilloma

Tongue, lips, gingiva, buccal mucosa

28

What is a fibroma?

Non-neoplastic hyperplastic lesion due to chronic irritation

29

Lobular capillary hemangioma (pyogenic granuloam) occurs most often where?

What patient group?

Tongue, lips, buccal mucosa

Pregnant women

30

Epulis is defined how?

Any benign growth of the gingiva

31

Altogether what are the four benign tumors of oral mucosa?

Papilloma
Fibroma
Lobular capillary hemangioma
Epulis

32

What are the three odontogenic tumors?

1. Odontoma
2. Keratocystic odontogenic tumor
3. Ameloblastoma

33

What is the most common odontogenic tumor?

Odontoma

34

Define odontoma?

Two types of tissue

Hamartoma

odontogenic epithelium and odontoblastic tissue

35

What is keratocystic odontogenic tumor associated with?

What syndrome has multiple tumors of this?

What must these be distinguished from?

Impacted teeth

Nevoid basal cell syndrome (Gorlin syndrome)

Dentigerous cysts

36

Ameloblastoma is defined how?

Epithelial tumor of enamel precursor cells

37

Where does ameloblastoma frequently occur?
What population?

Mandible
Younger than 35

38

Salivary glands are what type of glands?
What do they secrete?

Exocrine glands

Saliva

39

Three major types of salivary glands?

Parotid
Submandibular
Sublingual

40

Mumps infection results in what mainly?

Three other manifestations?

Bilateral inflammation of parotid glands

Orchitis, pancreatitis, aseptic meningitis

41

In mumps, serum amylase will be increased why?

1. Salivary gland involement
2. Pancreatitis involvement

42

Orchitis has what risk?

Sterility especially in teens

43

Sialadenitis definition?
Most often cause?
Unilateral or bilateral?

Inflammation of salivary gland

Obstructing stone leading to s. aureus infection

Unilateral

44

Sjogren syndrome presents in glands of face how? (3)

1. Keratoconjunctivitis sicca (dry eyes)
2. Xerostomia (dry mouth)
3. CT disease

45

Define mucocele

What is the cause?

Cyst-like pool of mucus lined by granulation tissue

Results from leakage of ruptured ducts

46

What is Ranula?
Where is it found?

Large mucocele of salivary gland origin

Floor of mouth

47

What is the most common tumor of salivary gland?

Pleomorphic adenoma

48

Pleomorphic adenoma definition

Usual location

How does it present

Benign tumor of stromal and epithelial tissue

Parotid

Painless, circumscribed and mobile mass at angle of jaw

49

What does pleomorphic adenoma have a high rate of?
Why?
How do you know if it progresses to carcinoma?

High rate of recurrence

Irregular border of tumor leads to bits being left behind after resection

Facial nerve damage signals spread

50

What patient type has pleomorphic adenoma the most?

Females between 20 and 40 years of age

51

What is second most common tumor of salivary gland?

Warthin tumor

52

Warthin tumor has what two components?

1. Benign Cystic tumor
2. Lymph node tissue of lymphocytes

53

Where does the warthin tumor usually arise?
Population most common in?

Parotid gland

Smokers

54

Define oncocytoma
Histological feature
Common population

Benign epithelial cell tumor

Cells have lots of mitochondria (eosinophilic)

Elderly

55

What is most common malignant tumor of salivary gland?

Mucoepidermoid carcinoma

56

Define mucoepidermoid carcinoma

Malignant tumor of mucinous and squamous cells

57

Mucoepidermoid carcinoma location?

Typical structure involved?

Parotid

Facial nerve

58

Adenoid cystic carcinoma has what architecture?
How does it spread?
Result of this?

Cribriform

Perineural invasion

Pain

59

Acinic cell carcinoma has what cells?

What population

Acinar cells of normal salivary gland

Young men