Flashcards in Neoplasia: Pathoma, BRS, First Aid Deck (68):
What is neoplasia?
New tissue growth that is Unregulated, irreversible, and monoclonal
What does monoclonal mean?
Neoplastic cells are derived from a single mother cell
Clonality was historically determined by what?
G6PD enzyme isoforms
Clonality of B lymphocytes is determined by what?
Ig light chain phenotype ratio of kappa to lambda
What is hyperplasia?
Increase in number of cells
What is metaplasia?
One adult cell type is replaced by another usually due to irritation and or environmental exposure
What is dysplasia?
Abnormal growth with loss of cellular orientation, shape, and size
What is anaplasia?
Abnormal cells lacking differentiation
Resemble primitive cels of same tissue
What is desmoplasia?
Fibrous tissue formation in response to neoplasm
What 3 -plasia's are reversible?
What 3 -plasia's are not?
Reversible: Hyper, Meta, Dys
Irreversible: Ana, Neo, Desmo
What does well-differentiated mean in neoplasia?
If it closely resembles the tissue of origin
Neoplasias are separated how?
1. Benign: Well differentiated, slow growing, well demarcated, possibly encapsulated, remain local and do not metastasize
2. Malignant: May be poorly differentiated, erratic growth, Invade locally and metastasize
Name benign and malignant neoplasia in the epithelium
Benign: Adenoma, papilloma
Malignant: Adenocarcinoma, Papillary carcinoma
Name benign and malignant neoplasia in the mesenchyme/fat
Name benign and malignant neoplasia in the lymphocytes?
Malignant: Lymphoma or Leukemia
Name benign and malignant neoplasia in the blood vessels?
Name benign and malignant neoplasia in the smooth muscle
Name benign and malignant neoplasia in the striated muscle
Name benign and malignant neoplasia in the CT
Name benign and malignant neoplasia in the bone?
What is the most defining characteristic of malignancy?
What do anaplastic cells exhibit? (4)
Hyperchromatism (Dark nuclei)
What does carcinoma mean?
Malignancy of epithelial cells
Squamous cell carcinoma originates where?
Stratified squamous epithelium of skin, mouth, esophagus, vagina and places with squamous metaplasia
How is squamous cell carcinoma marked?
Production of keratin
Transitional cell carcinoma arises where?
Transitional cell epithelium of urinary tract
Adenocarcinoma is a carcinoma of what?
Adenocarcinomas are found where? 5
1. GI mucosa
What cancer quality is adenocarcinoma frequently seen with?
What is sarcoma?
Malignancy of mesenchymal cells
What is a teratoma?
Benign or malignant
Neoplasm derived from all three germ cell layers
Could be either
What is a choristoma?
Small non-neoplastic area of normal tissue misplaced in another organ
What is a hamartoma?
Non-neoplastic, disorganized overgrowth of cell types found with an affected organ
What is an example of a hamartoma?
Hemangioma: Accumulation of blood vessels
What now is the gene most commonly used to determine clonality?
Cancer ranks where in cause of death in children?
2nd for both
Most common cancers by incidence in adults/
Most common cancers by mortality in adults?
How many divisions occur before cancer symptoms?
Cancers that do not produce symptoms until late in disease have what characteristics?
More divisions --> More mutations --> More lethal effects
What does a pap smear do?
Detect cervical dysplasia before it becomes carcinoma
What does mammography do?
Detects in situ breast cancer before it invades or before its palpable
What does PSA and digital rectal exam detect?
Prostate carcinoma before it spreads
Hemooccult test and colonoscopy detect what?
colonic adenoma before it becomes colonic carcinoma or spreads
Cancer formation is initiated by what?
Damage to DNA of stem cells
What are carcinogens?
Agents that damage DNA
What do aflatoxins cause?
What are alkylating agents cause?
What does alcohol cause? 2
Squamous cell carcinoma throat and UE
What does arsenic do? 3
Aquamous cell carcinoma of skin
Angiosarcoma of liver
What does asbestos cause? 2
What does smoking cause?
Carcinoma of throat, esophagus, lung, kidney, bladder and pancreas
What do nitrosamines cause?
What does naphthylamine cause?
Urothelial carcinoma of bladder
Vinyl chloride causes what?
Angiosarcoma of liver
What does nickel, chromium, beryllium or silica cause?
What is initiaiton?
First critical carcinogenic event: DNA and chemical reacting
What is promotion?
When something not carcinogenic enhances carcinogenicity of another carcinogen
What does Ebv cause? (3)
1. Throat carcinoma
2. Burkitt lymphoma
3. CNS lymphoma in AIDS
What does HHV-8 cause?
What does HBV and HCV cause?
Adult T cell leukemia/lymphoma
High risk HPV causes what?
What strains are bad?
SCC of vagina, anus, cervix
Adenocarcinoma of cervix
16, 18, 31, 33
What does benzene cause?
What does thorotrast cause?
What does H. pylori cause? (2)
What are proto-oncogenes essential for?
Cell growth and differentiation