Neoplasia: Pathoma, BRS, First Aid Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Neoplasia: Pathoma, BRS, First Aid Deck (68):
1

What is neoplasia?

New tissue growth that is Unregulated, irreversible, and monoclonal

2

What does monoclonal mean?

Neoplastic cells are derived from a single mother cell

3

Clonality was historically determined by what?

G6PD enzyme isoforms

4

Clonality of B lymphocytes is determined by what?

Ig light chain phenotype ratio of kappa to lambda

5

What is hyperplasia?

Increase in number of cells

6

What is metaplasia?

One adult cell type is replaced by another usually due to irritation and or environmental exposure

7

What is dysplasia?

Abnormal growth with loss of cellular orientation, shape, and size

8

What is anaplasia?

Abnormal cells lacking differentiation
Resemble primitive cels of same tissue

9

What is desmoplasia?

Fibrous tissue formation in response to neoplasm

10

What 3 -plasia's are reversible?
What 3 -plasia's are not?

Reversible: Hyper, Meta, Dys
Irreversible: Ana, Neo, Desmo

11

What does well-differentiated mean in neoplasia?

If it closely resembles the tissue of origin

12

Neoplasias are separated how?
Define each

1. Benign: Well differentiated, slow growing, well demarcated, possibly encapsulated, remain local and do not metastasize
2. Malignant: May be poorly differentiated, erratic growth, Invade locally and metastasize

13

Name benign and malignant neoplasia in the epithelium

Benign: Adenoma, papilloma
Malignant: Adenocarcinoma, Papillary carcinoma

14

Name benign and malignant neoplasia in the mesenchyme/fat

Benign: Lipoma
Malignant: Liposarcoma

15

Name benign and malignant neoplasia in the lymphocytes?

Benign: None
Malignant: Lymphoma or Leukemia

16

Name benign and malignant neoplasia in the blood vessels?

Benign: Hemangioma
Malignant: Angiosarcoma

17

Name benign and malignant neoplasia in the smooth muscle

Benign: Leiomyoma
Malignant: Leiomyosarcoma

18

Name benign and malignant neoplasia in the striated muscle

Benign: Rhabdomyoma
Malignant: Rhabdomyosarcoma

19

Name benign and malignant neoplasia in the CT

Benignt: Fibroma
Malignant: Fibrosarcoma

20

Name benign and malignant neoplasia in the bone?

Benign: Osteoma
Malignant: OSteosarcoma

21

What is the most defining characteristic of malignancy?

Metastasis

22

What do anaplastic cells exhibit? (4)

Pleiomorphism
Hyperchromatism (Dark nuclei)
Bigger nuclei
Prominent nucleoli

23

What does carcinoma mean?

Malignancy of epithelial cells

24

Squamous cell carcinoma originates where?

Stratified squamous epithelium of skin, mouth, esophagus, vagina and places with squamous metaplasia

25

How is squamous cell carcinoma marked?

Production of keratin

26

Transitional cell carcinoma arises where?

Transitional cell epithelium of urinary tract

27

Adenocarcinoma is a carcinoma of what?

Glandular epithelium

28

Adenocarcinomas are found where? 5

1. GI mucosa
2. Endometrium
3. Pancreas
4. Breast
5. Prostate

29

What cancer quality is adenocarcinoma frequently seen with?

Dysplasia

30

What is sarcoma?

Malignancy of mesenchymal cells

31

What is a teratoma?
Benign or malignant

Neoplasm derived from all three germ cell layers
Could be either

32

What is a choristoma?

Small non-neoplastic area of normal tissue misplaced in another organ

33

What is a hamartoma?

Non-neoplastic, disorganized overgrowth of cell types found with an affected organ

34

What is an example of a hamartoma?

Hemangioma: Accumulation of blood vessels

35

What now is the gene most commonly used to determine clonality?

HUMARA

36

Cancer ranks where in cause of death in children?
In adults?

2nd for both

37

Most common cancers by incidence in adults/

1. Breast/prostate
2. Lung
3. colorectal

38

Most common cancers by mortality in adults?

1. Lung
2. Breast/prostate
3. Colrectal

39

How many divisions occur before cancer symptoms?

30

40

Cancers that do not produce symptoms until late in disease have what characteristics?

More divisions --> More mutations --> More lethal effects

41

What does a pap smear do?

Detect cervical dysplasia before it becomes carcinoma

42

What does mammography do?

Detects in situ breast cancer before it invades or before its palpable

43

What does PSA and digital rectal exam detect?

Prostate carcinoma before it spreads

44

Hemooccult test and colonoscopy detect what?

colonic adenoma before it becomes colonic carcinoma or spreads

45

Cancer formation is initiated by what?

Damage to DNA of stem cells

46

What are carcinogens?

Agents that damage DNA

47

What do aflatoxins cause?

Hepatocellular carcinoma

48

What are alkylating agents cause?

Leukemia/lymphoma

49

What does alcohol cause? 2

Squamous cell carcinoma throat and UE
Hepatocellular carcinoma

50

What does arsenic do? 3

Aquamous cell carcinoma of skin
Lung cancer
Angiosarcoma of liver

51

What does asbestos cause? 2

Lung carcinoma
Mesothelioma

52

What does smoking cause?

Carcinoma of throat, esophagus, lung, kidney, bladder and pancreas

53

What do nitrosamines cause?

Stomach carcinoma

54

What does naphthylamine cause?

Urothelial carcinoma of bladder

55

Vinyl chloride causes what?

Angiosarcoma of liver

56

What does nickel, chromium, beryllium or silica cause?

Lung carcinoma

57

What is initiaiton?

First critical carcinogenic event: DNA and chemical reacting

58

What is promotion?

When something not carcinogenic enhances carcinogenicity of another carcinogen

59

What does Ebv cause? (3)

1. Throat carcinoma
2. Burkitt lymphoma
3. CNS lymphoma in AIDS

60

What does HHV-8 cause?

Kaposi sarcoma

61

What does HBV and HCV cause?

Hepatocellular carcinoma

62

HTLV-1

Adult T cell leukemia/lymphoma

63

High risk HPV causes what?
What strains are bad?

SCC of vagina, anus, cervix
Adenocarcinoma of cervix

16, 18, 31, 33

64

What does benzene cause?

Acute leukemia

65

What does thorotrast cause?

Hepatic hemangiosarcoma

66

What does H. pylori cause? (2)

Adenocarcinoma
B-cell lymphomas

67

What are proto-oncogenes essential for?

Cell growth and differentiation

68

Mutations of proto-oncogenes form what?

Oncogenes that lead to unregulated cellular growth?