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Flashcards in Global Governance of the Earth's Oceans Deck (6)
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Supranational Insitutions for global governance

'governance' suggests broader nations of steering/piloting rather than direct form of control associate with 'government'
= steering rules, norms, codes and regulations used to regulate human activity internationally
- 1919 Great War led to establishment of League of Nations, acceleration to greater global governance after WWII, UN at the forefront


Difference between governance and governments

Governments = rule of law, unipolar decision making (centralised), primary goals are economic growth and national resources security
Governance = agreements and cooperation, multilateral decision making (collective), primary goals are world peace, global prosperity and sustainable development


The UN, NATO and Ocean Governance

- UN was first post-war supranational institution to be established and has grown to embrace a range of governance such as human rights, health and economics
- UNESCO protects environment, including seas, 1992 conference established plan of action for sustainable development and laid the groundwork for the Kyoto Agreement in 1997
- UNCLOS treaty covers aspects of maritime management including territorial rights and marine biodiversity
- NATO alliance brings strength to 28 member states, major maritime powers, security and active role tackling piracy


Role of the EU and importance in ocean governance

- politically integrated supranational institution with own currency
- grants all members freedom of movement, most borders removed in 1995 after Schengen Agreement
- own strict rules on protecting Europe's seas and marine directive
- highly effective due to level of political integration members have achieves, must abide by laws or face sanctions
- ships forbidden form polluting territorial waters of EU countries, criminal offence to discharge oil or polluting substance


Role of G7/8 and G20 and importance in ocean governance

- G8 includes USA, Japan, UK, Germany, Italy, France and Canada [and Russia], since 1975, leading economic countries meet to coordinate response to economic challenge
- 2011, G8 acted to stabilise japans economy after tsunami
- may be losing importance as a forum of international decision making as some leading economies, china and India, are not members
- G20 founded in 1999 to include emerging economies
- larger size weakens ability to agree and act on environmental issues


G77 role and importance in ocean governance

- now has 134 members of developing countries, lobbied developing countries to do more to tackle climate change
- 1964 - G77 functioned as a loose coalition of countries
- diverging interests of many members limited global impact