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Flashcards in Information Flows Deck (3)
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The use of ICT by individuals and societies

- shrinking world and use of ICT accelerates globalisation, oceans provide space where 90% of all internet data passes via seafloor data cables
- ICT helped MNCs to expand globally, e.g. M&S, barcode scanned, data sent to Kenya to adjust order from suppliers
- Facebook, twitter and snapchat allow users to create global or local network of friends
- language and music adopted and hybridised faster than ever, 1.8bn views on 2012 'PSY' gingham style
- social networks used to spread awareness of political issue and fight for global scale changes


Seafloor cable data network growth and management

- first cables sent morse code laid on Atlantic sea floor in mid-1800s, 1950s, telephone conversation held as another cable laid, 1990s fibre optic cables replaced analogue, able to send huge amounts of digital data via light
- 99% of all intercontinental data traffic is transmitted by seafloor cables, Microsoft and Facebook building highest capacity Atlantic cable linking USA, Europe, Africa and Asia
- global governance measures protect seafloor cable networks, convention for protection of submarine cables signed by 20 states in 1884
- data cables recognised as critically important 21st century infrastructure, no-fishing and no-anchoring zones around cables
- future restrictions on laying cables across vulnerable seafloor ecosystems


Risks to global connectivity

- tectonic hazards and landslides = seismic profilers used to mitigate risks by avoiding hazardous zones
- tsunamis and cyclones = 26 Dec 2004, tsunami damaged land-based telecoms networks in coastal Malaysia and S.Africa
-Anchors and trawling = 60% cut cables incidents by dropped anchors and fishing nets, Asia temporarily lost 75% of internet capacity in 2008 when a ships anchor severed major internet artery
- Fish/sharks = bit cables, may be encouraged due to strumming sensation of EM fields
- Sabotage = common during both WW's