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Causes of forced migration according to UN

- 2014, more people forced to migrate since the WWII, 14million driven from homes due to natural disaster or conflict
- global total of displaced people now exceeds 60mn, around 40mn internally displaced and 20mn refugees
- recent forced movements caused by wars in syria, Yemen, Ukraine, CAR and S.Sudan


Geopolitical causes of forced migration in central Africa

- 1945-70, colonised African countries gained freedom from European superpower rule, ever since geopolitical instability.
- source countries are Somalia and Rwanda
- Hutu and Tutsi supremacy in Rwanda during civil war of 1994, many fleeing Rwanda to Sudan


Geopolitical conflict in the Middle East resulting in forced migration

- become world's largest source region for refugees
- syria and Afghanistan generated most refugees on a rolling basis since 1970s
- ongoing Israel-palestine conflict
- superpower involvement, USA and Russia and some EU countries support different oil-rich eastern states
- Al-Qaeda and Taliban have risen amid conflict chaos


Land grabbing

- refugee movements arisen due to land grabbing
- economic injustice involving acquisition of large land areas in developing countries by domestic industry and MNCs, governments and individuals, land seized from vulnerable by powerful
- indigenous groups such as faring communities may not have legal claim of land and often lack education needed to defend rights in court


Drought and climate change forcing migration

- climate change may intensify rural poverty and conflict in some countries
- Sudan's semi arid Darfur region, 2mn displaced after land grabbing and conflict exacerbated by drought and desertification
- millions escaped drought in Horn of Africa since 1990, moving from Somalia and Ethiopia into Kenya


Social impact on migrants as a result of forced migration

-2016, largest numbers of IDPs were columbian ad Syrian with 7 mn
- adults unable to work in refugee camps and can't earn a living,, children not schooled and life in camps tough for elderly, very young, and women
- Human Rights Watch is an NGO, documenting rape of women and girls in camps, NE Nigeria. Boko Haram militia initially forced them to leave homes
- Many refugees escaped horrific conditions, including child soldiers in Sierra Leone and DRC in 1990s


Impacts of forced migration on neighbouring states

- majority do not attempt long journeys, but travel to the neighbouring country, especially elderly and very young
- conflict in Syria put great pressure in Turkey, Lebanon and Jordan


Impact of forced migration on developed countries

- minority gain opportunity to start a new life after being granted asylum in a developed country
- since 2006, rising numbers of N.Afrian and M.Eastern migrants attempted to reach EU in unsafe boats, by 2016 1mn attempted crossing from Syria and African nations at war
- EU coastguards struggled to prevent deaths at Med. sea, 800 people died after boat capsized near Italy coast in April 2015.
- All EU states obliged to take in refugees irrespective of other migration rules as they have signed the UDHR, guaranteeing all refugees to seek and enjoy asylum


Global governance of the rights of refugees

Refugee Convention (1951) = signed by 144 states, ensure refugees were established HR to education, employment and housing, obliged to protect and ensure they are not returned to country where threats occur
UNHCR (UN high commissioner for refugees) = guards 1951 convention, works closely with companies to provide camps, shelter and food
Peacekeeping missions and troops = drawn from member states, based at camps to protect from violence, 30,000 stationed in DRC, largest deployment of UN troops


National government policies

- some countries grant asylum to high proportion of migrants claiming to be refugees
- EU states struggle to reach political agreement on where refugees arriving in Greece and Italy should settle
- Both countries want burden of resettlement to be shared between other EU members, struggling to reach agreement on distributing refugees
- Germany taken many more than any other state, 1.1mn in 2015


Powerlessness of step preventing cross-border refugee movements

- little growth in economic development of infrastructure along parts of DRCs N&E borders, government powerless to prevent cross-border flows of people
- greed over DRCs rise natural resources, including diamonds, attracted unwanted militia groups from other countries
- same problems broken out in Nigeria where Boko Haram group violence and kidnapping displaced +2mn people