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Flashcards in Rural-Urban Migration Deck (7)
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Push factors in rural areas

- displacement of indigenous people because of land grabbing
- poverty aggravated by land reforms and not enough jobs available
- land grabs by MNCs and cash cropping agribusiness outcompetes private farming, reduces need for labour due to machinery introduced by MNCs
- rural dwellers gaining knowledge due to 'shrinking world' technologies, successful migrants able to communicate useful information to potential migrants in rural areas
- transport improvements, e.g. S. America Trans-Amazon Highway


Employment pull factors in urban areas

- global shift of employment to Asia and S. America created new work opportunities in cities, making rural-urban divide greater
- MNCs in developed countries and emerging economies move factories to lower wage locations (off-shoring)
- MNCs outsource work as part of global supply chain operations, MNCs look towards Bangladesh and Vietnam, while workers are still willing despite very low wages
- informal work sector includes scavenging landfill sites for recyclable materials and sell to supply-chain companies


Export processing zones

- India, China, Indonesia have well established SEZs (special EZ) where expos processing takes place
- 1965 - India recognised effectiveness of export zone model in promoting growth, today nearly 200 SEZs
- coastal SEZs crucial to chinas early economic growth
- Jakarta low ax export processing zone popular off-shoring location for MNCs such as Gap and Levi's influencing much rural-urban migration


rural problems and management

- ageing population in rural areas, youthful out-migration to urban areas
- falling economic productivity, threat to future agricultural production and food security as countryside left with ageing workforce
proposed ruralisation = investments in modern, self-sufficient villages, younger population less-likely to leave
- Kenya M-Pesa mobile phone service revolutionised life for rural businesses
- 1/2 countries GDP sent through M-Pesa system annually
- fishermen and farmers use to check market prices before selling produce to buyers, maximising rural incomes


Urban problems and their management

- 1970, 3 megacities, by 2020, there will be 30, all growing due to rural-urban migration
- new growth takes place on city periphery where shanty housing is built by dwellers
- informal housing may consolidate expensive and desirable districts with Rocinha, Rio, boasting a McDonalds, hair salons and health clinics
- Aspirations beyond agriculture are developed by rural young population as wealth in cities grows
- e.g Mumbai megacity growth , home to 21 mn people fleeing rural states, urban employment covers a range of sectors and skill levels, MNCs such as Starbucks and Hilton are present, 5,000 employed in Dharavi's plastic recycling industries, redeveloping slum area


Top-down urban growth strategies

- megascale housing construction and planning in China and creation of megacity clusters


Bottom-up urban continuity development strategies

- poor migrant communities in Lagos must take bottom-up steps to improve local environment and access to housing with little state support, resulting in squatter settlement growth
- makeshift homes built above water on stilts, land reclaimed from lagoon is built on. 250,000 population in Makako working in informal economy such as fishing