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Flashcards in Managing Ocean Pollution Deck (9)
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Plastic pollution problems

- problem accelerated due to increase in plastic production globally
- 2014, 311million tonnes produced worldwide
- essential for everyday life, toothbrush, asthma pumps
- cheap materials and EEs development fuelled 'throw away' attitudes (bin instead of fix)
- bottled water driven by lifestyle
- every mile2 contains 46,000 pieces of floating plastic
- scientists concerned with impacts on maritime ecosystems and food webs, lids from plastic bottles can mimc appearance of shrimp eaten by albatross


Surface gyres of ocean and effect on plastic pollution

- circular currents in oceans cycle plastic clockwise (n.Hem) and anticlockwise (s.Hem)
- high levels found on remote islands as a result
- rubber ducks found on Atlantic beaches after 1992 container ship incident in Pacific Ocean


Eutrophication and marine dead zones

- nitrate fertilisers runoff into rivers or coastal waters
- algal bloom = initial growth in marine life, followed by death of fish and crustaceans
- 20 major marine dead zones, particularly coast of Japan and Gulf of Mexico due to hub regions of global agri-business


Management of marine waste at varying scales

- global conventions (UNCLOS)
- EU and other rules on waste management
- citizen led and NGO actions


Global conventions and limitation in reducing plastic waste in oceans

- UNCLOS states bound by rules preventing waste dumping delibrately at sea
- recycling schemes in some countries
- land based discharges due to weather flashing litter into estuaries or river networks


National and European rules to reduce plastic waste in oceans

- government now using legislation to reduce throwaway plastics
- thin plastic bags in china prohibited
- 70% reduction after introduction of plastic bag charge in Wales 2011


Awareness and local action of plastic pollution in oceans

- citizens and NGOs joined global campaign
- adventure ecology campaign group built a boat fro 12,500 bottles and sailed it across the pacific ocean
- Greenpeace, ocean clean up of NGOs campaigned on issue also
- plastic bags film created in 2010
- numerous NGOs working on banning bottled water where tap water is available


Evaluation of success of plastic waste strategies

- government action in EU states at international and national levels, educating citizens on recycling facilities
- plastic waste set to quadruple by 2050 on account of globalising affluence in EEs
- most strategies target new flows rather than existing stocks
- developing new materials, including biodegradable or edible plastic


Global governance by UNESCO and protection of oceans

- since 1972, world health convention, UNESCO awarded special protection to places/regions that have 'outstanding universal value'
- outstanding = exceptional site, 'geography of superlative'
- universal = significance globally not just national importance
- value = UNESCO uses a criteria to define 'worth' such as species richness/uniqueness
- 2016 46 maritime sites of world heritage list
- Wadden sea, S. North Sea, 10million birds stop on their way from breeding areas in Siberia/Canada
- Columbia's Malpelo Fauna and Flora Sanctuary maintaining shark and fish health in Pacific Ocean
- Galapagos Islands marine reserve is a biodiversity hotspot