Glossary- B Flashcards Preview

CISA > Glossary- B > Flashcards

Flashcards in Glossary- B Deck (33):
1

back door

A section of code that permits someone to bypass access controls and ac- cess data or functions. Back doors are commonly placed in programs during develop- ment but are removed before programming is complete.

2

background check

The process of verifying an employment candidate’s employment history, education records, professional licenses and certifications, criminal back- ground, and financial background.

3

background verification

See background check.

4

back-out plan

A procedure used to reverse the effect of a change that was not successful.

5

backup

The process of copying important data to another media device in the event of a hardware failure, error, or software bug that causes damage to data.

6

backup media rotation

Any scheme used to determine how backup media is to be reused.

7

balanced scorecard

A management tool that is used to measure the performance and effectiveness of an organization.

8

barbed wire

Coiled or straight wire with sharp barbs that may be placed along the top of a fence or wall to prevent or deter passage by unauthorized personnel.

9

benchmark

The practice of measuring a process in order to compare its performance and quality with the same process as performed by another firm. The purpose is to discover opportunities for improvement that may result in lower cost, fewer resources, and higher quality.

10

biometrics

Any use of a machine-readable characteristic of a user’s body that unique- ly identifies the user. Biometrics can be used for strong authentication. Types of bio- metrics include voice recognition, fingerprint, hand scan, palm vein scan, iris scan, retina scan, facial scan, and handwriting. See also authentication, strong authentication.

11

blackmail

An attempt to extort money from an individual or organization through a threat of exposure.

12

blackout

A complete loss of electric power for more than a few seconds.

13

blade server

A type of computer architecture where a main chassis equipped with a power supply, cooling, network, and console connectors contains several slots that are fitted with individual computer modules called blades. Each blade is an independent computer system.

14

block cipher

This is an encryption algorithm that operates on blocks of data.

15

Bluetooth

A short-range airlink standard for data communications between periph- erals and low-power consumption devices.

16

bollard

A barrier that prevents the entry of vehicles into protected areas.

17

border gateway protocol (BGP)

A TCP/IP routing protocol that is used to transmit network routing information from one network router to another in order to determine the most efficient path through a large network.

18

bot

A type of malware in which agents are implanted by other forms of malware and which are programmed to obey remotely issued instructions. See also bot army.

19

bot army

A collection of bots that are under the control of an individual. See also bot.

20

bridge

An Ethernet network device that is used to interconnect two or more Ethernet
networks.

21

broadcast address

The highest numeric IP address in an IP subnet. When a packet is sent to the network’s broadcast address, all active stations on the network will receive it.

22

brownout

A sustained drop in voltage that can last from several seconds to several hours.

23

budget

A plan for allocating resources over a certain time period.

24

bug sweeping

The practice of electronically searching for covert listening devices.

25

bus

A component in a computer that provides the means for the different compo- nents of the computer to communicate with each other.

26

bus topology

A network topology where each station is connected to a central cable.

27

business case

An explanation of the expected benefits to the business that will be
realized as a result of a program or project.

28

business continuity planning (BCP)

The activities required to ensure the continua- tion of critical business processes.

29

business functional requirements

Formal statements that describe required busi- ness functions that a system must support.

30

business impact analysis (BIA)

A study that is used to identify the impact that differ- ent disaster scenarios will have on on-going business operations.

31

business realization

The result of strategic planning, process development, and sys- tems development, which all contribute toward a launch of business operations to reach a set of business objectives.

32

business process reengineering

The set of activities related to the process of making changes to business processes.

33

business recovery plan

The activities required to recover and resume critical business processes and activities. See also response document.