Flashcards in Gluconeogenesis Deck (44)
Gluconeogenesis is _______ synthesis of glucose.
Gluconeogenesis is synthesis of glucose form __________ substrates.
What are some of the non-carbohydrate substrates used in Gluconeogenesis.
Glycerol from adipose tissue
glucogenic amino acids from muscle protein
Enzymes for Gluconeogenesis are found where?
Only in liver, kidney, and intestinal epithelium
Gluconeogenesis main occurs where?
Cytosol of liver cells
During prolonged starvation what becomes the major glucose producing organs?
When glucose is not available what does the brain use for fuel?
When does gluconeogenesis occur?
Durian fasting, starvation, or intense exercise
Gluconeogenesis is highly ________. (energy requiring)
Can humans make glucose from acetyl CoA?
Glucokinase is replaced by which enzyme?
PFK is replaced by which enzyme?
Pyruvate kinase is replaced by which enzyme?
Pyruvate carboxylase and PEP carboxykinase
What is the common substrate for gluconeogenesis?
Lactic acid is converted into _______ by which cycle?
What enzyme is used to convert lactate to pyruvate?
What is the glucogenic amino acid that can convert to pyruvate?
The Cori cycle comes at a net loss of how many ATP?
What does the Cori cycle do?
Prevents lactic acid from building up in the muscles.
The first step of gluconeogenesis occurs where?
The rest of gluconeogenesis (not 1st step) occurs where?
What enzyme converts pyruvate to oxaloacetate? This occurs where?
Mitochondrion (1st step)
What is the essential coenzyme for the 1st reversal step? (pryruvate to oxaloacetate)?
A biotin deficiency will cause what to build up resulting in excess production.
What are allosteric activators of the 1st reversal step in gluconeogenesis?
ATP and Acetyl CoA
What is the second part reversal?
Oxaloacetate to phosphoenolpyruvate
What enzyme is used in the second step?
Where does the second step occur?
PEP carboxylase is facilitate by what?
Glucagon and cortisol