What is the net production of ATP and NADH for glycolysis?
In terms of metabolic disease, what is the problem with fructose?
It doesn’t stimulate insulin release
It fails to increase leptin production from adipocytes
Doesn’t appear to suppress ghrelin production
Fructose is converted glycerol in the liver - the chemical backbone of triacylgylcols
When does glucose storage change from glycogen to FAs in the liver?
When it’s saturated with glycogen
What is the pathogenesis of Pompes disease?
Lysosomes become engorged with glycogen as they’re unavailable to break it down due to their lack of alpha-1,4-glucosidase
What is advantage of low GI food?
The glucose is released into the blood more slowly
What is fibre protective against?
What are signals for glycogen breakdown?
Adrenaline (in the muscles)
What organic molecules is fibre derived from?
Other complex carbohydrates
What is galactosaemia due to?
Failure to convert galactose to glucose
Are ketones sugar or fat?
What does low C-peptide mean?
How many bases does NADH possess in its structure?
How much glucose does the brain need per day?
What are raw materials for gluconeogenesis?
What is produced in the pentose phosphate pathway?
Ribose and NADPH
What are the pathological consequences of abnormal glycation?
Glycated blood vessels become brittle and prone to clots that stop the circulation
- Gangrene in feet
Which cell types have GLUT4 transporters?
Adipose and muscle cells
What is converted to lactate in anaerobic respiration?
What compounds can’t under go gluconeogenesis?
Is glycolysis anaerobic or aerobic?
What is the fasting level of glucose?
How much ATP does aerobic metabolism produce?
Is the glucose the body uses D- or L-?
What is the energy produced in NADH metabolism?
Which glucose transporter is important in diabetes?
How does glucose damage protein?
Glycation (addition of sugar)
What type of sugars are glucose and galactose?
When is the pentose phosphate pathway mainly used?
In the fed state
What is the major ketose in our diet?
What is C-peptide?
The part of pro-insulin that is cleaved out
What is a starch a polymer of?
What is the first reaction of glycolysis?
Glucose to glucose-6-phosphate
Which enzyme does the liver and kidneys have that allows gluconeogenesis
What type of sugar is lactose?
Which GLUT transporter do all cell possess?
Above what blood glucose threshold will glucose be detected in the urine?
What is the energy produced in metabolism of ATP?
Are shorter or longer gut transit times better?
What type of respiration does the retina rely on?
What is the Cory cycle?
Glycogen to lactate in muscles
Lactate goes to the liver and converted back to glucose which is stored back in muscle
What did the pasteur effect show?
The anaerobic respiration is less efficient than aerobic
Why does the retina rely on anaerobic respiration?
There are few mitochondria
What role does Mg have in ATP reactions?
What does fibre do stools?
Increase their water content making them softer and less rough
What happens with GLUT4 in response to insulin?
It gets placed on the membrane
In what time of respiration can creatine be of aid?
Which GLUT transporters should be know about?
1,2 and 4