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Flashcards in Haem1 Deck (417)
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271

Name two PBS indications for rivoraxaban VTE prophylaxis in knee & hip surgery (dabigatran

apixiban too)

272

What's the most common mode of inheritance of vWD? AD (Type 1

which is vast majority of cases)

273

Less common: anaemia of chronic disease

hyperthyroidism

274

There are two forms of non-heme iron: ferric and ferrous. Which type do we absorb best? We absorb ferrous (Fe2+) best - 2

like 'me too!'. 3 is not good at being absorbed and our body actively changes Fe3+ to Fe2+ (via duodenal cytochrome B).

275

Which one is ferric / ferrous iron? Fe2

Fe3? Ferric Fe3 - ric is ick! We don't like it

276

Ferrous Fe2 - 'ous' is delicious

we like this best

277

How long should someone get oral iron replacement for iron def anaemia? 6 months to replace stores. Monitor Hb monthly (should increase 20-30 / month)

and reticulocytes should increase after 1-2 weeks (in response to making mor eiron)

278

In what conditions is hypoxia inducible factor (HIF) released? Released in iron deficiency / hypoxia. Up regulates DyctB and DMT1

increases iron absorbtion

279

Complete this sentence: dietary B12 is bound to R proteins

liberation depends on xxxx pancreatic enzymes. Dietary B12 will remain bound to R protein in pts with pancreatic insufficiency (which is therefore a cause of B12 deficiency)

280

Where is B12 absorbed? Terminal ileum

via cubilin receptor

281

T/F? Both B12 & folate deficiencies can cause neurologic manifestations No

only B12 deficiency can cause neuro issue (subacute degeneration of spinal cord); folate doesn't affect neurologic system in such a way

282

What's the most sensitive test for haemolysis? (low) Haptoglobin - if normal

patient very unlikely to have significant degree of haemolysis.

283

Urinary haemosiderin is low / normal / high in a) intravascular haemolysis

b) extravascular haemolysis a) intravascular- positive urinary haemosiderin

284

Mechanical haemolytic anaemia (prosthetic valve

severe valve disease)

285

What's the pathophysiology of PNH? Rare disease (1 in 1 million)

acquired

286

Cold at < 37 degrees (eg. 34

4 degrees)

287

T/F? Alpha thalassemia can be diagnosed on electrophoresis? False

can be diagnosed only on DNA studies (electrophoresis for Beta-thal)

288

To make gross generalisations

what blood disorder to you see in SE Asia? Mediterranean? Africa? SE Asia - alpha thal

289

T/F? HbH is low affinity for oxygen False

high affinity for oxygen

290

a+ is deletion / inactivation of one allele of a gene (but residual function of the other allele

so the gene itself is still -partially - functional)

291

T/F? Ferritin levels in thalassaemia correlate well with iron burden in heart & liver False

doesn't correlate well. Need annual cardiac MRI to check iron burden on organs.

292

What's the role of hydroxyurea in sickle cell disease? For all sickle cell disease (also used in PRV & ET)

helps increase HbF levels & prevent crisis by increased Hb O2 binding capacity

293

Auer rods

hypergranular promyelocytes = ? APML

294

Idiopathic abdominal vein thrombosis (eg Budd Chiari) is an indication to test for what mutation? 

JAK2 mutation testing to look for essential thrombocytosis

295

What's the key difference between myeloproliferative disorders & myelodysplastic disorders? As it sounds - 'proliferative' - cells are fine

there's just too many of them

296

Dysplastic' - deformed cells

and not enough of them

297

What's the treatment for low grade NHL? Chlorambcil

fludarabine

298

With regards to MGUS

what's the biggest predictor of progression to MM? Size of the myeloma protein

299

Post allograft

when does engraftment usually occur? Day 15-30

300

Which body part most common involved in acute GVHD?

Skin 90%. Then liver & gut. These three main sites are involved in GVHD occuring before Day 100 of allograft.