Flashcards in Haematology Deck (51):
1. Name of resultant chromosome
2. Associated Disease
3. Resultant Protein
t(9;22) - Philadelphia chromosome
present in > 95% of patients with CML
Treat with tyrosine kinase inhibitors such as Imatinib!
Seen in APML (Acute ProMyelocitic Leukaemia)
Mantle Cell Lymphoma
Massive Splenomegaly = ? (Haem answer)
CML or Myelofibrosis
Visceral Leishmaniasis (Kala-azar)
Post Splenectomy pathogens = ?
DVT scoring system = ?
Polycythaemia Rubra Vera mutation = ?
JAK2 - also first line test
Bence Jones Protein (BJP) in the urine = ?
Multiple Myeloma - symptoms = CRAB
(Can be Waldenström's macroglobulinemia - Signs and symptoms of WM include LYMPHADENOPATHY + SPLENOMEGALY, weakness, fatigue, weight loss and chronic oozing of blood from the nose and gums.)
Heinz bodies on blood film (inclusions within RBCs) = ?
Howell - Jolly bodies (purple spot of nuclear remnants in RBC)
Post-splenectomy or severe hyposplenism (e.g. sickle cell)
Also megaloblastic anaemia
Paroxysmal cold haemoglobinuria
APTT monitors heparin or warfarin?
Heparin - Intrinsic Pathway
PT monitors heparin or warfarin?
Warfarin - Extrinsic Pathway
Auer Rods = ?
"Starry Sky" appearance - histology = ?
JAK2 mutation = ?
Polycythaemia rubra vera
Polycythaemia rubra vera
Paroxysmal nocturnal haemoglobinuria
Microangiopathic haemolytic anaemia (MAHA)
'Dry' / 'Bloody tap' on BM aspirate
Low FVIII with nosebleeds / gum bleeding
Maculopapular rash after transfusion
Tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP)
Hairy cell leukaemia
Centrocytes + Centroblasts on blood film
Follicular lymphoma (14;18)
Monocytosis of >1000/mm3
Chronic myelo-monocytic leukaemia
Severe headache + ESR >60
Test for Hereditary Spherocytosis
Osmotic fragility test
CNS Signs (hallucinations / headaches etc)
TTP (MARCH with low platelets)
Non classical hodgkins lymphoma
Nodular lymphocytic leukaemia
Drug to treat CML
Mech of action of imatinib
Tyrosine Kinase inhibitor
Prolonged bleeding post dental surgery
Most common type of Hodgkin's lymphoma
Nodular Sclerosing (70%)
Felty's syndrome =
Neutropenia + splenomegaly with underlying long-standing rhuematoid arthritis
How long should warfarin therapy be continued?
1. Provoked (e.g. recent surgery)
1. 3 months
2. 6 months
Management of DVT
1. Low molecular weight heparin (LMWH) or fondaparinux should be given ASAP after a DVT is diagnosed
2. a vitamin K antagonist (i.e. warfarin) should be given within 24 hours of the diagnosis
3. Continue LMWH for 5 days
4. Continue warfarin for 3 - 6 months
Investigation of DVT
If a DVT is 'likely' (2 points or more)
a proximal leg vein ultrasound scan should be carried out within 4 hours and, if the result is negative, a D-dimer test
if a proximal leg vein ultrasound scan cannot be carried out within 4 hours a D-dimer test should be performed and low-molecular weight heparin administered whilst waiting for the proximal leg vein ultrasound scan (which should be performed within 24 hours)
If a DVT is 'unlikely' (1 point or less)
perform a D-dimer test and if it is positive arrange:
a proximal leg vein ultrasound scan within 4 hours
if a proximal leg vein ultrasound scan cannot be carried out within 4 hours low-molecular weight heparin should be administered whilst waiting for the proximal leg vein ultrasound scan (which should be performed within 24 hours)
Warfarin target INR
VTE = 2.5, if recurrent 3.5
Atrial fib = 2.5
Genetic translation associated with Burkitt's lymphoma
Most common inherited thrombophilia
Most common inherited bleeding disorder