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Ed's One Liners / EMQ Buzzwords > Haematology > Flashcards

Flashcards in Haematology Deck (51):
1

t(9;22) translocation

1. Name of resultant chromosome

2. Associated Disease

3. Resultant Protein

t(9;22) - Philadelphia chromosome

present in > 95% of patients with CML

BCR-ABL gene

Treat with tyrosine kinase inhibitors such as Imatinib!

2

t(15;17) translocation

Seen in APML (Acute ProMyelocitic Leukaemia)

3

t(8;14) translocation

Burkitt's Lymphoma

4

t(11;14) translocation

Mantle Cell Lymphoma

5

Massive Splenomegaly = ? (Haem answer)

CML or Myelofibrosis

Non Haem:

Visceral Leishmaniasis (Kala-azar)

Malaria

6

Post Splenectomy pathogens = ?

Encapsulated bacteria:

Haemophilus Influenzae

Streptococcus pneumoniae

Meningococcus

7

DVT scoring system = ?

Wells score

8

Polycythaemia Rubra Vera mutation = ?

JAK2 - also first line test

9

Bence Jones Protein (BJP) in the urine = ?

Multiple Myeloma - symptoms = CRAB

(Can be Waldenström's macroglobulinemia - Signs and symptoms of WM include LYMPHADENOPATHY + SPLENOMEGALY, weakness, fatigue, weight loss and chronic oozing of blood from the nose and gums.)

10

Heinz bodies on blood film (inclusions within RBCs) = ?

G6PD

11

Howell - Jolly bodies (purple spot of nuclear remnants in RBC)

Post-splenectomy or severe hyposplenism (e.g. sickle cell)

Also megaloblastic anaemia

12

Donath-Landsteiner antibodies

Paroxysmal cold haemoglobinuria

13

APTT monitors heparin or warfarin?

Heparin - Intrinsic Pathway

14

PT monitors heparin or warfarin?

Warfarin - Extrinsic Pathway

15

Heparin antidote?

Protamine Sulphate

16

Auer Rods = ?

AML

17

"Starry Sky" appearance - histology = ?

Burkitt's Lymphoma

18

JAK2 mutation = ?

Polycythaemia rubra vera

19

Aquagenic pruritus

Polycythaemia rubra vera

20

Smear cell

CLL

21

Teardrop dacrocyte

Myelofibrosis

22

Osmotic fragility

Hereditary spherocytosis

23

Ham's test

Paroxysmal nocturnal haemoglobinuria

24

Hypersegmented neutrophils

Megaloblastic Anaemia

25

Cabot rings

Megaloblastic Anaemia

26

Schistocytes

Microangiopathic haemolytic anaemia (MAHA)

27

'Dry' / 'Bloody tap' on BM aspirate

Myelofibrosis

28

Low FVIII with nosebleeds / gum bleeding

VwD

29

Maculopapular rash after transfusion

GVHD

30

Tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP)

Hairy cell leukaemia

31

Reed-Sternberg cells

Hodgkin's lymphoma

32

Centrocytes + Centroblasts on blood film

Follicular lymphoma (14;18)

33

Monocytosis of >1000/mm3

Chronic myelo-monocytic leukaemia

34

Severe headache + ESR >60

Temporal arteritis

35

Test for Hereditary Spherocytosis

Osmotic fragility test

36

MAHA

Fever

Renal Failure

CNS Signs (hallucinations / headaches etc)

Haematuria

Low platelets

TTP (MARCH with low platelets)

37

Non classical hodgkins lymphoma

Nodular lymphocytic leukaemia

38

Drug to treat CML

Imatinib

39

Mech of action of imatinib

Tyrosine Kinase inhibitor

40

Prolonged bleeding post dental surgery

VwD

41

Most common type of Hodgkin's lymphoma

Nodular Sclerosing (70%)

Good prognosis

42

Felty's syndrome =

Neutropenia + splenomegaly with underlying long-standing rhuematoid arthritis

43

How long should warfarin therapy be continued?

1. Provoked (e.g. recent surgery)

2. Unprovoked

1. 3 months

2. 6 months

44

Management of DVT

1. Low molecular weight heparin (LMWH) or fondaparinux should be given ASAP after a DVT is diagnosed

2. a vitamin K antagonist (i.e. warfarin) should be given within 24 hours of the diagnosis

3. Continue LMWH for 5 days

4. Continue warfarin for 3 - 6 months

45

Investigation of DVT

If a DVT is 'likely' (2 points or more)
a proximal leg vein ultrasound scan should be carried out within 4 hours and, if the result is negative, a D-dimer test
if a proximal leg vein ultrasound scan cannot be carried out within 4 hours a D-dimer test should be performed and low-molecular weight heparin administered whilst waiting for the proximal leg vein ultrasound scan (which should be performed within 24 hours)

If a DVT is 'unlikely' (1 point or less)
perform a D-dimer test and if it is positive arrange:
a proximal leg vein ultrasound scan within 4 hours
if a proximal leg vein ultrasound scan cannot be carried out within 4 hours low-molecular weight heparin should be administered whilst waiting for the proximal leg vein ultrasound scan (which should be performed within 24 hours)

46

anti-Cardiolipin antibody

antiphospholipid syndrome

47

Warfarin target INR

VTE = 2.5, if recurrent 3.5
Atrial fib = 2.5

48

Genetic translation associated with Burkitt's lymphoma

C-myc gene

49

Most common inherited thrombophilia

FV Leiden

50

Most common inherited bleeding disorder

VwD

51

Rate limiting enzyme in haem synthesis

ALA synthase