Micro Buzzwords Flashcards Preview

Ed's One Liners / EMQ Buzzwords > Micro Buzzwords > Flashcards

Flashcards in Micro Buzzwords Deck (78):
1

Optochin Sensitive = ?

Streptococcus pneumoniae!

Streptococcus viridans is RESISTANT

2

14 - 3 - 3 protein = ?

CJD (Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease)

3

Causative organism of Lyme Disease = ?

Borrelia burgdorferi (Gram negative)

Spircohaete (helically coiled under microscope)

Vector = Ixodes tick

Treatment = Oral Doxycycline

4

Growth on Lowenstein-Jensen medium = ?

Mycobacterium species (usually tuberculosis)

Ziehl-Neelson stain is also commonly used

5

Thick, red, blood-stained "red-currant jelly" sputum = ?

Kelbsiella Pneumoniae (gram negative rod) - atypical pneumonia

Common in ALCOHOLICS

6

Most common cause of infective endocarditis in

1. IV drug users

2. Non-IV drug users

1. Staph Aureus (gram positive coccus)

2. Strep Viridans (gram positive coccus + Optochin resistant)

7

Anti-viral - guanosine
analogue and acts as a substrate for viral thymidine kinase = ?

Acyclovir - effective against herpes simplex + herpes zoster (shingles)

8

Most common cause of UTI in women = ?

E. Coli (lactose-fermenting gram negative rod)

9

'rice-water' stool - profuse watery diarrhoea = ?

Vibrio Cholerae (gram negative comma-shaped bacteria)

10

'Kala-azar' = ?

Visceral Leishmaniasis

Common clinical features include
fever and splenomegaly. Hepatomegaly, skin hyperpigmentation and dry
warty skin occur less frequently, and bone marrow invasion can result in pancytopenia.

11

Novy-MacNeal-Nicolle medium used to grow = ?

Leishmania
- major
- dovani
- braziliensis

12

Most common cause of BV (bacterial vaginosis) = ?

Gardnerella vaginalis

13

African Sleeping Sickness

Causative organism:

1. Acute infection (weeks - month)

2. Chronic infection (months - years)

1. Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense

2. Trypanosoma brucei gambiense (more common)

14

Chagas Disease

1. Organism

2. Vector

3. Presentation

1. Trypanasoma Cruzi

2. Reduviid bug (South America)

3. In the acute phase,
patients may experience non-specific symptoms such as fever, lethargy,
diarrhoea, and vomiting. A characteristic feature, but one which occurs
in less than 50 per cent of cases, is a purplish swelling of the eyelids
(called Romana’s sign). To put this all together, picture Tom Cruise
(Trypanosoma cruzi) starring in a gladiator film as a Roman (Romana’s sign) wearing purple sunglasses (swollen eyelids) and being kissed
(kissing bugs) by lots of fans ‘ready with their video cameras’ (reduviid!)

15

'flying saucers' on Gomori's methenamine silver stain = Which organism?

Pneumocystis jirovecii

Fungus

AIDS defining illness

16

Pnuemonia with hyponatraemia = ?

Legionella

17

Pneumonia from unpasteurized milk / refrigerated food = ?

Listeria monocytogenes

18

Swimming in 'contaminated warer', presenting with bloody diarrhoea, anaemia + thrombocytopenia (HUS)

E. Coli

19

Foul smelling steatorrhoea + pear shaped organism = ?

GIardia lamblia

20

Pnuemonia in COPD + heavy smoker = organism?

H. Influenzae

21

Pnuemonia post influenza infection = organism?

S. Aureus (+ve cocci 'grape bunch clusters')

22

Pnuemonia in heavy drinker (+ haemoptysis) = organism?

Klebsiella pneumonia (-ve rod, enterobacter)

23

Pnuemonia in CF = organism?

Pseudomonas, (Burkholderia cepacia too)

24

1st line treatment of uncomplicated chlamydia?

Azithromycin STAT + doxycycline 100mg BD

25

1st line treatment of syphilis?

IM Benzyl Penicillin

26

Chocolate agar medium = ?

Chancroid - Haemophilus ducreyi

27

Antibiotic that can cause Grey baby syndrome

Chloramphenicol

28

Treatment for PCP

Co-trimoxazole

29

Pneumonia causing bacteria which also causes reactivation of Herpes Simplex -> Cold sores

Strep Pneumoniae

30

HBsAg

1. What is it?

2. What does +ve indicate?

1. Hep. B surface antigen

2. +ve in those with acute or chronic Hep. B

31

Anti-HBs

1. What is it?

2. What does +ve indicate?

1. IgG antibody produced after host has cleared the infection

2. +ve in those who have recovered / been vaccinated

32

HBeAg

1. What is it?

2. What does +ve indicate?

1. Marker of infectivity!

2. +ve means the patient is highly infective

33

Anti-HBc IgM

1. What is it?

2. What does +ve indicate?

1. Marker of acute infection

2. +ve indicates patient has been recently infected - acute infection

34

Anti-HBc IgG

1. What is it?

2. What does +ve indicate?

1. Marker of chronic infection

2. Persists lifelong after infection

35

Treatment for C. Diff

Oral metronidazole for 14 days

Followed by vancomycin if met fails

36

Superantigen causing bacteria

Staph Aureus

37

Thayer–Martin VCN media used to grow

Neisseria species

38

Meningism in HIV

Cryptococcus neoformans

39

India Ink stain reveals yeast cells with surrounding halos (on examination of CSF)

Cryptococcus neoformans

40

Organism causing Lymphogranuloma Venereum (LGV)

Chlamydia trachomatis

41

Clue cells + 'fishy' vag discharge

Bacterial vaginosis

42

1st line treatment for Staph Aureus

Flucloxacillin (can cause cholestatic jaundice)

43

1st line treatment for UTIs

Trimethoprim

44

Treatment for MRSA

IV Vancomycin

45

1st line treatment for Neisseria meningitidis

Ceftriaxone (may be Cefotaxime in EMQs)

Also used for pyelonephritis + sepsis secondary to HAP

46

Virus that binds to sialic acid receptors in the upper resp tract

Influenza

47

Treatment given to HIV patients with hepatitis B

Interferon-α (pegylated IFN-α used for treatment of Hep C)

pegylated = attachment of polyethylene glycol

48

Treatment given to HIV patients with Influenza

Oseltamivir (Tamiflu)

49

Treatment / Prophylaxis for CMV

Gancyclovir (also used for HHV-6 and EBV)

50

Cause of oral thrush in HIV

Candida albicans

51

Cause of Pityriasis versicolour

Malassezia furfur

52

'Spaghetti and meatballs' appearance under microscope of rash causing hyperpigmented spots

Pityriasis versicolour

53

Rash caused by prick from rose thorns

Sporothrix schenckii

54

Parotid swelling + raised amylase in unvaccinated child

Mumps

55

Child with developmental delay, sensorineural deafness, cataracts and cardiac abnormalities

Rubella

56

Treatment for Spontaneous bacterial peritonitis (SBP)

IV Cefotaxime

57

Form of malaria parasite which invades erythrocytes

Merozite

58

Which group of antibiotics is bacteriostatic and acts on 50S ribosomes to interfere with mRNA translation

Macrolides

59

Positive Paul Bunnell test

Infectious mononucleosis (glandular fever)

60

Infection associated with Kaposi's sarcoma (note - not HIV)

HHV 8

61

Infection associated with pneumonitis

Cytomegalovirus

62

Gram-negative curved rod, whose toxin affects adenyl cyclase. Its major cause of death is shock, metabolic acidosis and renal failure.

Vibrio Cholera

63

This microbe affects mainly the distal colon, producing acute mucosal inflammation and erosion. It is spread by person-to-person contact, and its clinical features include fever, pain, diarrhoea and dysentery.

Shigella

64

This microbe affects the ileum, appendix and colon. Its peyer patch invasion leads to mesenteric lymph node enlargement with necrotising granulomas. Complication can include peritonitis, pharyngitis and pericarditis.

Yersinia

65

Treatment for giardasis

Metronidazole

66

Vomiting following Chinese takeaway (usually some form of rice)

Bacillus cereus

67

S-shaped microaerophillic bacteria causing fever + diarrhoea

Campylobacter

68

IVDU presenting with fever, jaundice and hepatomegaly

Hep B

69

CSF from a patient with suspected meningitis

Appearance - Yellow / cloudy

White cells - raised, mostly neutrophils

Protein - >1mg/dl (raised)

Glucose -

Bacterial meningitis

70

CSF from a patient with suspected meningitis

Appearance - Clear

White cells - raised, mostly lymphocytes

Protein - normal or slightly raised

Glucose - normal

Viral meningitis

71

CSF from a patient with suspected meningitis

Appearance - Yellow / turbid

White cells - raised, mostly lymphocytes

Protein - slightly increased

Glucose - decreased

TB meningitis

72

Cause of meningitis is unvaccinated child

H. influenzae

73

Rapid onset alzheimers + movement disturbances. EEG shows periodic sharp waves.

CJD

74

The 2nd commonest cause of uncomplicated UTI in young women

Staph saprophyticus

75

Can be used as monotherapy for acute pyelonephritis

Ciprofloxacin

76

A cephalosporin used for treating pseudomonal infections in cystic fibrosis

Ceftazidime

77

Treatment for invasive diarrhea (bloody stool + fever)

Ciprofloxacin

78

Most common cause of osteomyelitis

Staph Aureus