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Flashcards in Health And Disease Deck (17)
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What are non-communicable diseases?

Diseases that cannot be passed from one individual to another


What are risk factors?

Aspects of a persons lifestyle or substance present in a persons body or environment that have been shown to be linked to an increase of a disease.


What are effects of smoking?

Can cause cardiovascular diseases:
- lung cancer
- coronary heart disease
- lung diseases: COPD and bronchitis


What happens to the fetus when a pregnant woman smokes?

The fetus exposed to the smoke has restricted oxygen, which can lead to:
-premature birth
- low birthweight
- stillbirth


What is obesity a strong risk factor of?

Type 2 diabetes


What effect does alcohol have on the liver ?

- can damage liver
- cause cirrhosis
- cause liver cancer


What are some other negative effects of alcohol?

Can cause brain damage and death


How is the digestive system adapted to reduce the entry of pathogens in the body?

The stomach produces acid and it destroys the
microorganisms in the mucus you swallow, as well as
the majority of the pathogens you take in through
your mouth in your food and drink.


How is the respiratory system adapted to reduce the entry of pathogens in the body?

1) Your nose is full of hairs and produces sticky liquid, called
mucus. The hairs and mucus trap particles in the air that may contain pathogens or irritate your lungs.
2)The trachea and bronchi also secrete mucus that traps pathogens from the air.


How is the skin adapted to to reduce the entry of pathogens in the body?

1) Your skin covers your body and acts as a barrier. It prevents bacteria and viruses reaching the tissue beneath

2) Your skin produces antimicrobial secretions to destroy
pathogenic bacteria


Explain how "rose black dot" (fungus) can slow down a plants growth

Causes black or purple spots to develop on the leaves of rose plants and can turn yellow and fall off. This means that there is less photosynthesis happening so the plant doesn't grow very well


How can gardeners treat and prevent the fungal disease "rose black dots"?

1) use fungicides
2) stripping the plant of its affected leaves


What happens during the pre-clinical trials of developing a drug (phase 1)? And what are they testing for?

The drug is tested on animal cells>tissues>organ>organisms and this is to test the toxicity, efficacy and dosage


What happens during the clinical trials of developing a drug (phase 2)? And what are they testing for?

-test it in humans now, testing toxicity (including clearance from the body, how the body gets rid of it),efficacy and dosage again,
-also test the live time of the drug (stability)

Step1- small group of normal people(toxicity), step 2-small group of ill people step (efficacy) 3- a large group of ill people (dosage)


What happens during the running trials of developing a drug (phase 3)? And what are they testing for?

-They test how well the drug works by putting them in 2 groups one has the drug the other a placebo ( they don't know)
-sometimes instead of a placebo they compare it to an already existing drug that works (to see if its better than what we already have)
- can sometimes be double blind


Whats the placebo effect?

When the patient expects the treatment to work and so they feel better- even though the treatment isn't doing anything


Whats a double blind trials? And why is it good practice?

When neither the doctor nor the patients know who's getting the drug and who's getting the placebo. They help remove any biased results and the trials are fair.