B11-Hormonal coordination Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in B11-Hormonal coordination Deck (36)
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1

What is the endocrine system?

The endocrine system is composed of glands that secrete chemicals called hormones directly into the bloodstream. The blood carries the hormone to a target organ where it produces an effect.

2

What other system does the Endocrine system work together with?

The endocrine system works alongside the nervous system to coordinate and control your
body, reacting to changes in the internal and external environment (homeostasis).

3

Compare the effects of hormones in the endocrine system in comparison to the nervous system

The effects of hormones in the endocrine system are often slower but longer lasting

4

Name the key endocrine glands (6)

-pituitary
- thyroid
- pancreas
- adrenal gland
- ovaries
-testes

5

What is the role of the Pituitary gland?

The pituitary gland is the master gland and secretes several hormones into the blood stream to response to body conditions. Some of these hormones act on other glands and stimulates them to release hormones to bring about specific effects.

6

What are insulin and glucagon

Hormones

7

What organ releases insulin and glucagon?

Pancreas

8

What effect does insulin have on the blood glucose levels?

Lowers the level by;
- more glucose taken in by cells
- glucose converted to glycogen in the liver
- cells respire more (to use up the glucose)

9

Whats effect does glucagon have on the blood glucose levels?

Increases it by;
- liver breaks down glycogen back to glucose
- amnio acids/ fats broken down

10

What is type 1 diabetes?

When the pancreas doesn't secrete (produce) enough insulin, so blood glucose levels can rise fatally high

11

What is type 2 diabetes?

When the body stops responding to its own insulin

12

What causes type 1 diabetes?

this is inherited through genes and usually starts in young children and teenagers

13

What causes type 2 diabetes?

- it is caused by obesity, a lack of exercise and a diet with too much sugar

- usually more common with older people 50-70 (more or less)

14

How is type 2 diabetes treated?

By a carbohydrate controlled diet and exercise, and if this doesn't work then drugs may be used, or insulin injection if non of these work

15

How is type 1 diabetes treated?

By injecting insulin to replace the hormone that is not made in the body

16

Where are FSH hormones secreted from?

Pituitary gland

17

What are the roles of FSH hormones?(2)

-to mature eggs
- and stimulate the ovaries to produce oestrogen

18

Where are LH hormones secreted from?

Pituitary gland

19

What is the role of LH hormones?

Stimulates ovaries to release eggs

20

Where is the oestrogen hormone secreted?

Ovaries

21

What are the roles of oestrogen?(3)

-to stimulate LH production
- to inhibit(hold back) FHS production
-stimulates lining of the uterus to develop

22

What does FSH stand for?

Follicle stimulating hormone

23

What does LH stand for?

Luteinising hormone

24

Describe the negative feedback in the menstrual cycle

Oestrogen switches off any further of FSH, which are hormones that cause the eggs to mature. So as oestrogen level rises, less FSH is produced preventing more eggs maturing

25

Contraceptive pill

Contains low doses of oestrogen and progesterone. This inhibits the production and release of FSH by the pituitary gland, affecting ovaries so no eggs mature preventing pregnancy
-easy to use
-but slight risk of side effects (breast cancer...)and have to take regularly

26

Contraceptive implant

Tiny tubes inserted under your skin by doctors, which slowly release progesterone, which stimulates the production of which mucus which prevents any sperm getting through and reaching the eggs
- last up to 3years and 99.95% effective

27

Contraceptive patch

Contains oestrogen and progesterone. You stick the latch under your skin
-replaced every 7days

28

Whats are barrier method?examples?

Methods of contraception that prevent the sperm reaching the egg
Condoms
Diaphragms/ caps

29

What are spermicides?

Chemicals that kill or disabled sperm, however nit very effective at preventing pregnancy

30

When do people take surgical contraceptive methods?

When you don't want any more children, they are surgically sterilised.
E.g vasectomy