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Flashcards in Health Beliefs Deck (19):
1

Explain the common sense model of how patients respond to symptoms.

Patient develops illness
Disease causes symptoms
Patient consults doctor
Doctor takes history/investigations
Doctor makes diagnosis
Patient follows doctor’s advice

2

Why is the common sense model wrong?

90% of people declare themselves to have experienced medical symptoms in the last 2 weeks.

3

What affects symptom/sensation perception?

Situational, cultural and psychological factors

4

What three main factors influence experience of symptom perception?

The intensity or severity of the symptom.
The familiarity of the symptom
The duration and frequency of the symptom.

5

What are Mechanic’s 10 variables known to influence illness behaviour?

1. Visibility and recognisability of symptoms.
2. Perceived seriousness of symptoms for present and future.
3. The extent to which symptoms disrupt family, work, social activities.
4. The frequency of symptoms, their persistence or recurrence.
5. The tolerance threshold of the person exposed to symptoms.
6. Available information, knowledge and cultural assumptions and understanding
7. Denial of symptoms.
8. Need that compete with illness responses.
9. Competing possible interpretations assigned to symptoms once recognised. (Normalisation)
10. Availability of treatment resources; proximity, access, cost, etc.

6

What are Zola’s triggers to consultation?

-The occurrence of an interpersonal crisis.
-Perceived interference with social or personal relations.
-Perceived interference with vocational or physical activity.
-“Temporalising” – setting a personal deadline.
-“Sanctioning” – pressure/permission from other people to consult.

7

Outline Leventhal’s Self-regulatory Model of Illness Behaviour.

Stage 1 – interpretation (symptom perception, social messages)
via
Representation of health threat (identity, cause, consequences, timeline, cure/control)
via
Emotional response to health threat (fear, anxiety, depression)
-->
Stage 2 – coping (approach coping, avoidance coping)
-->
Stage 3 – appraisal (was my coping strategy effective?)

8

Leventhal’s Self-regulatory Model of Illness Behaviour - focus on representation of health threat. (5)

Identity
Cause
Consequences
Timeline
Cure/control

9

What is meant by identity?

Symptom experience

10

What is meant by timeline?
What are the three timelines?

How Long the Illness will Last

Acute
Chronic
Cyclical

11

What is meant by consequences?

Perceptions of physical, social, emotional consequences

12

What is meant by control/curability?

Increased sense of personal control associated with improved self-management. Belief illness controlled by medication associated with greater adherence.

13

What influences beliefs?

Medical Establishment
Family/Friends
Culture
Social world - celebrities/internet/media

14

Give some examples of health behaviours. (6)

Alcohol intake
Use of car seatbelts
Hygiene
Not taking medication
Immunisation
Unsafe sex

15

Why study models of health behaviour?

An understanding of the psychological factors
underlying health behaviour can help us change patient behaviour and develop health promotion programmes.

16

Give some examples of models of health behaviour, apart from Leventhal’s Self-regulatory Model of Illness Behaviour. (4)

Health Belief Model
Theory of Planned Behaviour
Transtheoretical Model (Stages of Change)
Social Cognitive Theory

17

Explain the health belief model.

Perceived susceptibility
Perceived severity
-->Threat perception

Health motivation + threat perception + cues to action + perceived benefits of behaviour + perceived barriers/cost of behaviour = take action?

18

Explain the theory of planned behaviour.

Attitude
Subjective norm
--> Intention --> behaviour

Perceived behavioural control also feeds into intention and behaviour

19

How have these models helped?

Health promotion strategies