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Flashcards in Healthcare System Deck (25):
1

What are social determinants of health shaped by?

Distribution of money, power, and resources throughout local communities, nations, and the world

2

What are social determinants of health?

The complex, integrated, and overlapping social structures and economic systems that are responsible for most health inequities.

3

What do these 'social structures and economic systems' include? (4)

Social environment
Physical environment
Health services
Structural and societal factors

4

What are the determinants of population health? Which has the largest effect(***)? Which has the least(*)?

Medical care
Health behaviours
Genes and biology*
Social/societal characteristics and total ecology***

5

What are inequities?

The unfair, unjust and avoidable causes of ill-health

6

Why are inequities/social determinants of health important at the moment?

We are at a critical time in history. There is a widening gap – INCREASING INEQUITY.

7

What was said in the Black report 1982?

“Spending an ever increasing amount of GDP on health services whilst not being able to demonstrate that the higher spending is related to better health”

8

What was looked into in the Acheson report 1998?

Independent inquiry into inequalities in health DOH

9

Why is there a gap in mortality indices between Indigenous Australians and the rest of the population? (4)

-Poor access to antenatal care
-High rates of smoking in pregnancy
-A large (but declining) burden of cardiovascular disease
-An increasing incidence of cancer

10

In 2015/16 what was the aggregate deficit of the NHS?

£1.85 billion aggregate deficit

11

What factors make up the placebo effect? (3)

Body’s natural healing abilities
Mindset
Social context

12

What can be said about premature deaths in Scotland?

Much higher than elsewhere, for both men and women

13

Is premature death higher in men or women?

Men (by 1.5x)

14

What are the top three deprived areas in London?

Hackney
Newham
Tower Hamlets

15

Which three London boroughs have the worst life expectancy?

Barking and Dagenham
Tower Hamlets
Newham

16

Which three London boroughs have the highest rates of childhood obesity?

Southwark
Barking and Dagenham
Hackney

17

What key indicators of health are used to compare Tower Hamlets with London averages? (7)

Poverty and low income benefits
Inequality
Work and low pay
Housing
Homelessness
Education
Health

18

What are the environment/context determinants of health? (8)

Social support networks
Employment/working conditions
Social environemnts
Physical environments
Health services
Stress
Early life
Food

19

What are the behaviour determinants of health? (8)

Personal health practices and coping skills
Healthy child development
Addiction

20

What are the 'social group' determinants of health? (6)

Income and social status
Education and literacy
Gender
Culture
Social exclusion
Unemployment

21

What are socioeconomic determinants of health? (11)

Income and social status
Education (low education levels)
Lower levels of health literacy
Physical environment (safe water and clean air, healthy workplaces, safe houses, communities and roads)
Employment and working conditions
Social support networks
Culture
Genetics
Personal behaviour and coping skills (balanced eating, keeping active, smoking, drinking, and how we deal with life’s stresses)
Health services (access and use of services)
Gender

22

What makes up the ecosocial theory?

Embodiment
Pathways of embodiment
Cumulative interplay of exposure, susceptibility and resistance
Accountability and agency

23

What is meant by the Glasgow effect?

Scotland experiences high levels of ‘excess’ mortality: over and above that of socioeconomic profile. Increased chronic diseases, alcohol, drugs and deaths due to suicide.

24

Compared with England & Wales, how many more people die every year in Scotland than should be the case?

5,000

25

What is meant by a neoliberal subject?

Resilience, adaptation, vulnerability
Vulnerability as a mediator
Exercising consumer choice, in control, productive
Autonomy, individuality prized the most