Links Between Individual Experiences and Social Structures Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Links Between Individual Experiences and Social Structures Deck (29):

What are inequities?

The unfair, unjust and avoidable causes of ill-health


How is socio-economics associated with cause of death?

Goes up for cancer, heart disease, injury and poisoning, suicide the more deprived you are


What does GBH stand for? What does this mean?

Greedy bastards hypothesis
Health inequalities can be interpreted as indirect/unintended consequences of the ever-adaptive behaviours of members of Britain’s power elite and capitalist executive


What is meant by social class?

Social classes are segments of the population sharing broadly similar types and levels of resources, with broadly similar styles of living and some shared perception of their collective condition. 


What six grades of 'class' are laid out in 1980 Black report?

I. Professional
II. Intermediate
IIIn. Skilled non-manual
IIlm. Skilled manual
IT. Partly skilled
V. Unskilled


When are classes formed?

Classes are formed at the point of production and reproduced throughout social life


What is the newer typology of classes? (4)

New middle class
Old middle class
Working class


In positivist studies, what is class and health inequalities reduced down to? (6)

Level of education
Properties of work
Household income
Housing tenure
Car ownership
Patterns of lifestyle and behaviour


What is absolute poverty?

A set standard which is the same in all countries and which does not change over time.  An income-related example would be living on less than $X per day.


What is relative poverty?

A standard which is defined in terms of the society in which an individual lives and which therefore differs between countries and over time. An income-related example would be living on less than X% of average UK income.


How was childhood poverty defined in the UK in 2010?

Defined a child as being poor when it lives in a household with an income below 60% of the UK's average.


What was the average household income in 2013-14 before housing costs?
What does this make the poverty line?

£453 a week
£272 a week


Why does poverty lead to social exclusion?

People lack many of the opportunities that are available to the average citizen. This causes alienation or disenfranchisement of certain people within society. This reduces social cohesion in our society.


What pathways of embodiment are there? (4)
What does 'pathways of embodiment' mean?

Social cultural
Classical conditioning – stimulus-response

Techniques that you might do in order to become a particular type of subject, e.g. fasting to lose weight to not be marginalised for being overweight.


What is meant by subjectivity?

Subjectivity is the product of discourses, ideologies and institutional practices. It can be thought of as an individual’s experience of the social and what the individual turns themselves into as a result of that social experience so that it is a process of individuation as well as socialization.
This includes the impact of rules, categorisations, normalisations, and surveillance.
i.e. What is considered normal gets transmitted.


Relationships between people and their experiences, and the location which they occupy, are composed of various social and cultural...?



What is a field?

A field is the landscape that gets used in a particular way.
Each field has its own rules & regulations, procedures, assign roles & positions, regulates behaviours, & what can be said, and produces hierarchies.


What is meant by a discourse?

Type of language associated with an institution – policies, procedures, standard operating procedures


______ or _______ is shaped by operations in that field.

Identity or subjectivity


What does surveillance mean?

Gaze that we put on each other - a particular dynamic in power relations and disciplinary mechanisms
e.g. Medical gaze - the process of medical diagnosis, power dynamics between doctors and patients, and the hegemony of medical knowledge in society.


What technologies of power are there? (8)



How do adverse childhood experiences influence health and well-being throughout the lifespan? (5)

Disrupted neurodevelopment
Social, emotional and cognitive impairment
Adoption of health-risk behaviours
Disease, disability and social problems
Early death


What is meant by toxic stress?

Prolonged activation of stress response systems in the absence of protective relationships


What is meant by tolerable stress?

Serious, temporary stress responses, buffered by supportive relationships


What is meant by positive stress?

Brief increase in heart rate, mild elevations in stress hormone levels


Most maltreatment comes in the form of _____. How many % in 2011? Science shows can this can result in an even wider range of harm to ________ than physical abuse.

Neglect (78.5 percent in 2011)


What are the four trauma-informed public health approaches for adults and children?

Prevent (toxic stress)
Protect (from toxic stress)
Prepare (by building resiliency skills)
Promote (healthy/enrichment opportunities)


What is meant by the clinical gaze?

Disinterested objective eye; bodies depersonalised, individual doctor part of collective profession.


What were the proposed outcome objectives from the Tower Hamlets Well-being strategy 2012? (6)

• Stop the increase in levels of obesity and overweight children
• Reduced prevalence of tobacco use in Tower Hamlets
• Higher rates of physical activity
• Reduced prevalence of sexually transmitted infections and promote sexual health
• Reduced levels of harmful or hazardous drinking
• Reduced rates of drug use