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Flashcards in Knowledge Framework and Translation Deck (17):

What is knowledge? How do we know? – Three methods

Describing and classifying (regularities and patterns)
Analysing into elements (production and meaning)
Experimenting (observation and experience)


What is the scientific model of knowledge production? What is it also known as?

Ongoing process
Make observations, think of interesting questions, formulate hypotheses, develop predictions, gather data, develop general theories..


What are the advantages of the scientific model? (5)

- Tightly controlled independent variable allows comparison of effect on dependent variable
- Randomised controlled trial gold standard of medical interventions
- Replicable
- Reliable
- Objective


What is the disadvantage of the scientific model?

Does not and cannot accommodate inconsistencies, confounding and outliers


What are the three laws of medicine according to Siddhartha Mukherjee?

Law One: A strong intuition is much more powerful than a weak test.
Law Two: “Normals” teach us rules; “outliers” teach us laws.
Law Three: For every perfect medical experiment, there is a perfect human bias.


What is constructivism/constructionism? What does this mean? What is it also called?

Capture and understand meaning of a social action for agent performing it = INTERPRETIVISM
Observation and experience depend on perspective of observer
Partial, perspectival and situated knowledges
World is not singular and independent of observer, the world includes social facts


What are the advantages of constructivism? (4)

- It applies to the real world
- Takes into account impact of social processes
- Acknowledges prior experience and draws on this as a resource
- Rather than causes and effects, it is concerned with meaning and significance


What are the disadvantages of constructivism? (2)

- Sometimes perceived as anything goes (relativistic), disorganised and chaotic
- Not well recognised, understood, used and accepted by traditional positivist science


How is constructivism used in teaching/learning?

- Part of collaboration
- An example is metacognition
- Develops best practices
- Allows for different environments
- It is part of interactive/hands-on learning
- Develops variety in teaching strategies
- Leads to web learning


What is critical realism?

Real world exists out there independent of our experience
Access to real world complicated by many layers of socially constructed meaning
Focus on necessity and contingency rather than regularity


What is a paradigm shift? Give two examples.

Fundamental shift in the way scientists perceive reality
Flat and spherical theories of earth
Darwin’s theory of evolution


Who argued that natural sciences go through regular periods of ‘paradigm shift’ or ‘scientific revolution’?



What are the three outcomes for Tomorrow's Doctors?

Outcome 1 – Doctor as a scholar and scientist

Outcome 2 – Doctor as a practitioner

Outcome 3 – Doctor as a professional


Dynamic model of meeting place between doctor and patient - what makes up the gaze uncertainty triangle?



What makes up the knowledge tree? (3)

Critical realist


Define binaries.

Pertaining to two, a pair of terms often stated in opposition to one another in an argument. Usually one part of the pair is more valued than the other.


Define dualism.

Any theory which identifies an irreducible (incapable of being simplified further) distinction between two classes of thing.