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Flashcards in Older People - health, illness and society Deck (28):

Describe changes in the demographics of ageing.

How many people were there over the age of 65 in 1951, 2012 and projected to be in 2037?

How many more people will there be with three or more long-term conditions in England by 2018 compared to 2008?

The population is ageing as we live longer and there are more of us.

5, 12 and 16 million

Over 50% more


Outline the differences between biological and social ageing.

There is a social dimension to human ageing which can't be reduced to a set of bodily imperatives. ‘Ageing’ is not simply a matter of organic maturation and decay. It differs because ageing takes place in particular and changing social context, so when assessing patients, there shouldn't be assumptions about what is normal for a certain older age.

Social differences exist between the elderly marked by gender, socio-economic class, income and wealth, and ethnicity.


Define ageism and age discrimination.

Ageism is discrimination or unfair treatment based on a person’s age. It can impact on someone’s confidence, job prospects, financial situation and quality of life.
Ageism includes the way that older people are represented in the media (impacts on the public’s attitudes).


What is the Equality Act 2010 designed to prevent?

Discrimination - it makes discrimination (on the basis of age, race, sex, gender, disability, religion or belief, sexual orientation, marriage or civil partnership, or pregnancy/maternity) unlawful.


Under the Equality Act, what are older people protected from?

Ageism in employment, training and education, and also in membership of clubs and associations.
You also have increased protection when you are receiving products and services.


Give some examples of ageism. (4)

-Losing a job because of your age
-Receiving a lower quality of service in a shop or restaurant
-Being refused a referral from a doctor to a consultant because you are ‘too old’
-Being refused membership to a club or trade association because of your age


What additional or different health care needs do older people have? (7)

-Chronic diseases, physical disabilities, mental illness and other co-morbidities
-Poor knowledge/awareness about risk factors
-Additional/different food and nutritional requirements
-Financial constraints
-Poor access to healthcare systems


What are the political and economic consequences of an ageing population?

Widening ‘dependency ratio’
Increased funding of pensions
Increased long-term care
Rise in demands on the NHS


What is meant by dependency ratio?

The projected number of persons aged 65+ expressed as a percentage of the projected number of persons aged between 15 and 64.


What is a social and psychological consequence of an ageing population?

Increasing social isolation


Describe different experiences of later life.

Experience of later life depends on gender, ethnicity, sexual orientation, country (e.g. climate), falls, nutrition etc... People can have a very different experience!


How many % of people over the age of 65 live alone?

36% (nearly 70% of these are women).


BME make up 20% of population but just __% of people 60+.



How many LGBT people over the age of 55 are there estimated to be Britain?

1 million


How many people currently living in the UK will live to see their 100th birthday?

Nearly 1 in 5 people


How many people over the age of 70 reported they were still sexually active?

54% of men and 31%


For every degree colder than 20C outdoor temperature, mortality rises by...?



There are 15 times more excess winter deaths each year than...?

Road traffic fatalities


Out of the 18.7 million adults admitted to hospital last year, how many were aged 65+?

7.6 million (41%)


How many % of people over the age of 65 were found to be malnourished at the time of their admission



What is the largest cause of emergency hospital admissions, precipitates the move into residential care and accounts for 40% of ambulance call outs?



How many people aged 65+ died from a fall in 2014?
More women or more men?

This is ~ 10 people every day


What is the difference between biographical and historical time?

Biographical time - the processes, experiences and events that occur during an individual persons lifetime.
Historical time - the impact of cohort effects (e.g. living in war-time Britain) upon the individual experience of ageing.


Why is a key concern of elderly people maintaining their independence? Why is this idea problematic?

Because the notion of ‘dependency’ in adulthood is socially regarded as undermining self-respect and personal dignity.

This social construct can act as a barrier to ‘active ageing’ and affect people's own self-conceptions to become a self-fulfilling prophecy. It also is associated with the use of a universal retirement age - this can be used to remove older people from the workforce. It also leads to the medicalisation of old age.


How is social participation linked to health?

Low levels of social participation lead directly to poorer health outcomes.


What is meant by the 'Third Age’ critique of the Social Dependency Thesis?

The majority of the elderly are seen to have benefited from occupational pensions that enable them to pursue lifestyles that were unthinkable a generation ago.

From this perspective, older people are seen as having the social opportunity to take decisions about who they want to be in retirement and how they will live their lives.

If social identity is seen to derive from patterns of consumption, we can then talk about a ‘third age’ in which the notion of social dependency in old age has become largely redundant. This challenges the view of the centrality of retirement from work for late-life identity.


What is Erikson’s stage 7 of development?

Middle adulthood (40-65 years), psycho social crisis = generativity vs stagnation


What is Erikson’s stage 8 of development?

Late adulthood (65+ years), psycho social crisis = ego integrity vs despair