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Flashcards in HealthPsyc2 Deck (40)
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1

Health behaviour: • behavioural pathogens:

Matarazzo (1984)

• the health damaging/health risk behaviours such as
excessive alcohol consumption, smoking, fatty diet.

2

Chronic disease in Australia

“heart disease, stroke, cancer and other chronic
diseases looming epidemics that will take the
greatest toll in deaths and disability” (WHO, 2005)
• Chronic diseases impact heavily on:
• Burden upon patients/carers
• Rates of death/disability
• Use of health services
• Healthcare expenditure
See slide for graphs of behavioural contributors

3

Primary causes of death in Australia

Coronary heart disease
-Smoking -Diet -Exercise -Alcohol

Stroke (and other cerebrovascular diseases)
-Smoking -Diet -Alcohol -Exercise

Cancer (primarily lung, breast, prostate, colorectal)
-Smoking -Alcohol -Diet -Health Screening -Self-Examination

Dementia
-Smoking (?) -Alcohol(?) -Exercise (?) -Diet (?)

4

Smoking Risks

Increased risk of:
• Coronary heart disease
• Stroke
• Peripheral vascular disease
• Cancer

5

Daily Smoking Prevalence in Australia

2001: 19% 2013: 13%

6

Never Smoked >100 cigarettes (14+ years)

2001: 51% 2013: 60%

7

Factors associated with smoking

• Location
o Remote and very remote areas (2x more likely than major cities)

• SES
o Lower SES (3 x more likely than highest SES)

• Indigeneity
o Indigenous Australians
(2.5x more likely than non-Indigenous)

• Sexual orientation
o Homosexual and bisexual (more likely to
smoke daily than heterosexual)

8

Why start smoking?

• Modelling (peers, siblings, parents)
• Social pressure, social learning and reinforcement
• Weight control
• Risk-taking or problem behaviours
• Health cognitions (unrealistic optimism)

9

Why continue smoking?

• Enjoyment
• Habit
• Physical and/or psychological addiction
• Stress/anxiety management
• Low self-efficacy

10

Alcohol

“the second most widely used
psychoactive substance in the world
(after caffeine)”
(Julien, 1996, p101)

11

Alcohol Recommendations (for healthy adults who are not pregnant)

• For reducing long-term harm, no more than: 2 drinks a night

 For reducing short-term harm (i.e. injury), no more than: 4 drinks a night

Standard drink= 10g of alcohol

12

Alcohol Leads to Increased risk of…

Short Term
-Road and other accidents
• Domestic and public violence
• Crime

Long term
• Liver disease
• Cancer (oral, oesophagus, larynx)
• High blood pressure
• Pancreatitis
• Brain damage

13

Alcohol Prevalence • Exceeding guidelines for reducing long-term harm:

2001: 21% 2013: 18%

14

Alcohol Prevalence  Exceeding guidelines for reducing short-term harm:

2001: 29% 2013: 26%

15

Factors associated with risky drinking

• Location:
• Remote and very remote areas (2x more likely than major cities)

• SES:
• Higher SES (more likely to drink in risky quantities than people with lowest SES)

• Indigeneity:
• Indigenous Australians: more abstinence but (if
drinking) more risky

• Sexual orientation:
• Homosexual and bisexual (more likely to drink in risky quantities)

16

Why higher amongst same-sex attracted people?

Negative reactions to disclosure of orientation
• (Baiocco et al., 2010)

• Experiences of bisexual-negativity
(Molina et al., 2015)

17

Recommendations for safer sex

• Regular STI checks
• Covering potentially infectious areas
• Preventing/reducing the transfer of bodily fluids between partners

Use of:
• Internal (“female”) or external (“male”) condoms or
gloves during penetrative sex
• Condoms and dental dams for oral sex
• Lubricant to reduce condom breakage during anal
sex

18

With protection, reduced risk of…

• Unwanted pregnancy
• Infections: e.g.:
• HIV
• HPV
• chlamydia
• herpes simplex
• genital warts etc

19

Prevalence (amongst adults who had casual intercourse) • Used condom every time:

2002: 41% 2013: 49%

20

Factors associated with condom-use

• Amongst women:
• Age (less likely after 30)
• Excessive alcohol consumption (less likely after >
alcohol)
• Amongst men:
• Number of sexual partners (more likely with more than
one partner)

21

Why not use protection?

• Social:
• Difficulty/embarrassment in raising issue
• Anticipated objection
• Worry about STI implications
• Lack of self-efficacy for correct use
• Attitudes:
• Reduced spontaneity
• Unrealistically positive

22

Exercise Recommendations (for adults)

• Moderate activity, at least 150-300 min/week: eg. 30 mins 5 days a week

• Vigorous activity, at least 75-150 min/week:

23

Exercise Benefits

Reduced risk of:
Physical:
• Cardiovascular disease
• Type II diabetes
• Cancer (colon, breast)

Psychological:
Brown et al. (2012)
• Anxiety disorders + symptoms
• Major depressive disorder + symptoms
• Stress

24

Prevalence (amongst adults)
• Meeting exercise guidelines:

2005: 30% 2012: 43%

25

Factors associated with exercising

• Age:
• Younger (more likely to meet guidelines)

• SES:
• Higher (more likely to meet guidelines)

• Education
• Higher (more likely to meet guidelines)

• Location
• Major cities (more likely to meet guidelines)

26

Why exercise? Why not exercise?

• Internal
• Self-efficacy
• Lack of interest
• Enjoyment

• External
• Time constraints
• Modeling from family
• Social support
• Number of active neighbors

27

Health Diet Recommendations (for women)

2 fruit & 5 veg servings

28

Health Diet Recommendations (for men)

2 fruit & 6 veg servings

29

Serving Size

• Vegetable serve is 75g
• About half a cup of cooked
vegetables or a cup of raw
vegetables like lettuce.
• Fruit serve is 150g
• 2 small pieces of fruit or one
medium size piece of fruit.

30

Healthy Eating Benefits

Reduced risk of:
• Coronary heart disease
• Stroke
• Lung cancer

31

Prevalence (amongst adults)
• Meeting fruit guidelines:

2005: 54% 2012: 49%

32

Prevalence (amongst adults)
 Meeting vegetable guidelines:

2005: 14% 2012: 6%

33

Factors associated with F&V consumption

• SES:
• Higher (more likely to meet guidelines)
• Age:
5-7 years: 55% 12-34 years: 4% 55+ years: 8%

34

Why not eat F&V?

• Parental socialisation
• Permissiveness; feeding practices (Vereecken, Rovner, & Maes, 2010)
• Perceived and/or actual barriers:
• Lack of knowledge and skills
• Length of preparation time (Lea, Worsley & Crawford, 2005)
• Cost and availability (e.g. rural areas) (Lee et al., 2002)
• Misinformation:
• Consumers reluctant to eat vegetarian diet because of
concerns about lack of nutrients and iron (Lea & Worsley, 2001)

35

Why eat F&V? (Young Australians)

Pearson, Ball and Crawford (2011)
• 12-15 year olds in Victoria
Why eat F&V? (Young Australians)
• Vegetables:
• Peer support
• Self-efficacy
• Perceived availability of F&V in the home

• Fruit:
• Healthy eating value
• Modeling by mother
• Self-efficacy
• Perceived availability of energy-dense food in the home

36

HPV Vaccination Recomendations

• Ideally, before sexually active
• Free nationally for 12-13 year olds

37

Benefits (of vaccination with Gardasil)

Protects against HPV types 16 and 18. Amongst cancers attributable to HPV, types 16 and 18 cause approximately:
• 75% of cervical cancers
• 85% of vulvar and vaginal cancers
• 90% of cancers of the mouth/throat
• 75% of penile cancer
• 95% of anal cancers
• Also protects against HPV types 6 and 11, which cause:
• 90% of genital warts

38

Prevalence
• Had all three vaccinations:

National HPV Program Initiated in 2007

in 2011:
Girls 12-17: 71% Women 18-26: 33%

39

Factors associated with HPV Vaccination uptake

• Health insurance status (may not be issue in Australia)
• Program location (schools)
• Recommendation by health care professional
• Parental concern about:
• safety and side-effects
• initiation of early sexual behaviour (? Although unlikely to be a founded concern)

40

behavioural immunogens:

• the health protective/health enhancing behaviours such as exercise, health screening uptake, breast self
examination, and low fat diets.