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Flashcards in Training Deck (35)
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What are the 5 stages of the training process?

–Needs assessment
–Training design
–Training mode/implementation
–Training transfer and outcomes
–Training evaluation


Define training

The systematic acquisition of attitudes, concepts, knowledge, roles, or skills that result in improved performance at work (Goldstein, 1991, p. 508).


Define development

The set of activities that workers undergo to broaden and refine their KSAs.


When is training needed?

Initial training after selection

Conversion training

Organisational change

Maintenance of skills

Attitude change


I. Needs Assessment

A set of activities designed to collect data about what the organisation needs out of the training program.

Key Questions: What does the training need to accomplish... terms of the organisation’s goals? terms of specific tasks? terms of the people involved?
Should result in learning objectives


What is the first level of analysis in needs assessments?

1.Organisational Analysis

Identification of goals
Identification of human resource needs
Evaluation of methods of meeting HR needs
Assessment of resource availability
Evaluation of support for transfer of training


What is the second level of analysis in needs assessments?

2. Task (Job) Analysis
Identification of: - tasks
- standards
- optimal procedures


What is the third level of analysis in needs assessments?

3. Person Analysis

Evaluation of individual against standards
Identification of weaknesses
Identification of causes of weaknesses


II. Training Design

When deciding on the training design, you should take the following factors into consideration:
1.Purpose of training
2.Principles of learning
3.Trainer qualifications
4.Individual differences
6.Transfer of training


1. Purpose or training

1. Purpose (based on needs analysis)
Common objectives include:
- Information acquisition
- Skills development


2. Principles of learning

2.Principles of learning: Psychological theory and research can provide key principles for instructional design
a.Conceptual organisers and meaningful encoding
b. Modelling
d. Feedback
e. Cognitive load
f. Whole versus part learning
g. Massed versus Distributed Practice
h.Active Practice
I. Overlearning


a) Conceptual organisers and meaningful encoding:

Can help orient the trainee to the material by providing a framework for learning. Eg. at the start of each lecture we're provided with a framework of what we're going to learn


b) Modelling:

Instructor demonstrates overall pattern of behaviours and sometimes accompanies this with a verbal elaboration
•Based on social learning theory (humans can learn indirectly by observing others).


c) Reinforcement:

The greater the reinforcement (reward) that follows a behaviour, the more easily and rapidly that behaviour will be learned


d) Feedback:

Knowledge of the results of one’s actions
•Most effective when it is accurate, timely, and constructive


e) Cognitive load:

Try to optimise cognitive load.

Types of cognitive load (Sweller et al., 1998):
–Intrinsic load: imposed by the task to be learned
–Extraneous load: imposed by the instructional design itself
–Germane load: useful load that can be added when the learning task itself has low intrinsic load


f) Whole versus part learning:

•Whole learning: Entire task is practiced at once
•Part learning: Subtasks are practiced separately and later combined


g) Massed versus Distributed Practice:

•Massed practice: individuals practice a task continuously without rest
•Distributed practice: Provides individuals with rest intervals between practice sessions, which are spaced over a longer period of time.


h) Active Practice:

Involves actively participating in a training or work task rather than passively observing someone else performing the task


i) Overlearning:

Present trainees with several extra learning opportunities even after they have demonstrated mastery of a task


j) Fidelity:

The extent to which the task trained is similar to the task required on the job


3. Trainer qualifications

Trainers should:
- Have knowledge of the organisation
- Be knowledgeable about content
- Be motivated to train
- Understand principles of learning


4. Individual Differences

Should accommodate differences in:
- Literacy
- Motivation to learn
- Preferred learning style


Last 2 aspects of training design

5. Cost
6. Transfer of Training


III. Training Mode/Implementation

•Implementation of training: May use a variety of different modes (based on design).

–On-the-job training
–Job rotation
–Vestibule training

–Programmed/computer-assisted instruction


IV. Training Transfer

Training Transfer: Degree to which trainees apply the knowledge, skills, and attitudes gained in training to their jobs


In what 3 ways may training transfer happen?

Transfer can happen in three ways:
–Initiation: Does the person start using the training material on the job?
–Maintenance: Does the person keep using the training material on the job?
–Generalization: Can the person adapt what they learned as the job changes around them?


V. Training Evaluation

Kirkpatrick’s (1976) evaluation of training:
Reactions: Did they like the training?
Learning: Did they learn anything from the training?
Behaviour: Do trainees behave any differently back on the job?

Results: Did the training have the desired outcome?
Overall “training effectiveness”
Did the training work?


Training evaluation: Pre-post design with no comparison group

Positive: Maximises sample size; Avoids ethical/administrative problems of withholding or delaying training
Negative: No way of determining whether factors are due to training or some other factor; testing effects


Pre-post design with comparison group

Positive: Can determine whether effects are due to training or some other factor; testing less of a confound
Negative: Ethical constraints of delaying or withholding training


Post-test-only design with a comparison group

Positive: Useful when pre-testing is suspected of interacting with training
Negative: Experimental groups and control groups may not be the same before manipulation


Pre-post design with non-equivalent controls group

Positive: Often not practical for random allocation within organisations; when in-tact groups are isolated from each other there is less chance for control and experimental groups to mix and communicate.
Negative: Confounds from unknown differences between groups


Survey of management trainers by Bright et al. (2000)

92% asked for the subjective reaction of trainees immediately after training

45% reported using examinations to assess the acquisition of the new KSAs.

20% attempted to measure the costs and benefits of their training to the client organisation.

Only 29% of management trainers have a qualification in psychology; 9% have a qualification in adult education


Future Directions

Increased technology
Diversity of the workforce
Continuous learning
Adaptation and flexibility


Take Home Message

While the need for training is recognised, the value of applying psychological principles to training is less well recognised
In order to create a successful training program you first need to conduct a needs assessment
Training programs should be designed, implemented, and evaluated using our knowledge of psychological research and theory
The future of training is bright!