Flashcards in HealthPsych Session 3 Deck (29):
What are the physiological effects of the fight or flight response?
Increased RR and haematocrit
Liberation of glucose, protein breakdown, increased insulin resistance
Fluid conservation, coagulation, endogenous analgesia, increase immune and inflammatory response
Increased CO, BP and muscle responsiveness
Decreased digestive system and sexual response
Enhanced sensory awareness and alertness
Why is a moderate level of stress sometimes necessary?
To perform well
What happens in long-term stress?
Optimum performance surpassed --> disorganisation --> damage
What is general adaptation syndrome?
Alarm--> resistance --> exhaustion
What happens in the alarm stage of the general adaptation system?
Initial autonomic symptoms are seen
What happens in the resistance stage of the general adaptation syndrome?
Initial autonomic symptoms but body still runs above homeostasis
What happens in the exhaustion stage of general adaptation syndrome?
Initial autonomic symptoms recurr
What renders the physiological response to stress ill suited in today's environment?
More frequent, less acute daily stressors and hassles
How can stressors be used to measure stress?
Consider how many stressful life events experienced in the last year and how stressful these were perceived to be
Can also include daily hassles for greater range
What does using stressors as a measure of stress not take into account?
That same event may cause different levels of stress in different people
Stress response in absence of direct threat
What is the transactional model of stress?
Demands and stressors are appraised and if demands>stressors then stress response occurs
What resources are considered in the transactional model of stress?
What is primary appraisal in the transactional model of stress?
Is the event a threat and how bad could it be?
What is secondary appraisal in the transactional model of stress?
Do I have the resources to cope?
What is reappraisal in the transactional model of stress?
Reconsider event afterwards and decide whether it was more or less stressful than anticipated
What are the S/S of a stress response?
Aches and pains, diarrhoea, constipation, disrupted eating habits, loss of sex drive
Change in sleeping habits
Where does physical damage from physiological response to stress primarily occur?
What physical damage can occur in the CVS due to the physiological response to stress?
Mechanical trauma from high BP
What effects do short/medium term stress have on the immune system?
Increase lymphocytes, antibodies and B cells
What effects does long term stress have on the immune system?
Feedback loop is disrupted so cortisol levels remain high and act as an immunosuppressant and to decrease inflammation
What effects does stress have on unhealthy behaviours?
Increases engagement of maladaptive strategies which help in the short term but may cause damage in the long term
What effects does stress have on mental health?
Thinking becomes more rigid an extreme
Prone to cognitive distortions e.g. overgeneralisation, catastrophising, personalisation, rumination
Learned helplessness --> anxiety and depression
How do cognitive strategies manage stress?
Focus on appraisal with cognitive restructuring, hypothesis testing
How do behavioural strategies manage stress?
Decrease likelihood of stressor and provide resources to cope with skills training e.g. assertiveness, time management
What emotional strategies can help manage stress?
What physical strategies can help manage stress?
What non-cognitive strategies can be used for managing stress?
Drugs in initial Tx for PTSD
What is biofeedback?
Physical strategy to manage stress by training to control physiological stress processes e.g. BP, HR