Flashcards in HealthPsych Session 7 Deck (31):
What might cultural identity be based on?
Why is a dynamic definition of culture used clinically?
So pts can define which aspect of their culture is relevant at any point allowing for a change in clinical contexts, different life stages and clinical presentation itself
What is multiculturalism?
Diversity of ethnicity
Why is diversity important to healthcare?
Increasing diversity of populations
Pt-centred approach gives better outcomes
Huge disparities in care accessed
Disparities in aggression of interventions
What is diversity?
Range of difference relating to individual circumstances
What problems may arise considering diversity in healthcare?
Lack of knowledge
Self protection/denial (differences not significant)
Fear of unknown/new
What do problems with recognising diversity in healthcare lead to?
Pt-provider relationships affected by misunderstanding of expectations
Rejection of HCP
Conflict/isolation in staff groups
Perceptions of what aspects of service presentation can be influenced by culture ?
Certain symptoms and behaviours
Potential services and those pts will accept
Tx and management pts find acceptable
Issues of access
What problems may young people experience elated to culture?
Pressures to conform to: family religion, expected gender roles, social norms, family expectations
Impending forced marriages
Reconciling culutre in public and private domains
What is the gender binary model?
Males look and act masculine
Females look and act feminine
Clearly distinguished by anatomy --> intersex if not possible
What are societal norms?
Belief systems about what is normal, acceptable and ideal
What is gender identity?
Internal perception and experience of a person's own gender
What is gender expression/role?
Way a person lives in society and interacts with others
What does transgender mean?
Umbrella term for those whose gender identity and or expression differs from their birth sex
What is described by the term transsexual?
Someone who feels a consistent and overwhelming desire to transition and fulfil their life as a member of the opposite sex +/- gender reassignment
What common feature do transvestites and cross-dressers share?
Gender identity tends to be the same as their birth sex
What is sexual orientation?
Term for what gender you are attracted to which can be life long from an early age or vary over time
What is sexual identity?
How people describe themselves e.g. gay/lesbian/bisexual (polite terms but some people prefer no labels)
What is sexual behaviour?
MSM or WSW
How does discrimination lead to poorer health?
Decreases self esteem
Increased conflict --> physical and stress experiences
Subculture with associated -ve health behaviours
Distrust of authorities
Why are mental health problems not reported in gender reassignment cases?
Fear of rejection for surgery
What mental health needs do LGBT pts have?
Increased levels of stress-related mental health problems
Which LGBT pts experience more anxiety, depression and suicidality than lesbians and gay men?
What substance use health needs do LGBT pts have?
Increased rates of smoking, alcohol and recreational drug use
Why do lesbians need PAP smear tests?
Many have had sex with men and HPV can be transmitted between women
What are MSM pts at increased risk of developing?
Anal cancer, risk doubles if HIV +ve
Which STIs are more common amongst MSM?
HIV and symphysis
Why aren't all gay/bi men at high risk of STIs?
Depends on lifestyle factors e.g. condom use, number of sexual partners
Do WSW contract STIs of they have only had sex with women in the last 5 years?
What can be done in practise to help when seeing LGBT pts?
Validate pt's gender identity and do not pathologise/moralise
Don't rely on pts to educate you
Distinguish between pts problems and their identity
Be careful using pronouns and with other aspects of language