Flashcards in HealthPsych Session 2 Deck (68):
Why are health related behaviours having an increasing impact?
Leading cause of death is chronic diseases which these play a significant role in
What do learning theories consider?
How behaviour patterns are learned without conscious input
What is classical conditioning?
Unconscious linking of behaviours to unrelated stimuli
How can behaviours be prevented in classical conditioning?
Pair behaviour with unpleasant response
Create an obstruction between stimulus and behaviour to allow time to pause and think
Is classical conditioning limited to children?
What is operant conditioning?
Behaviour shaped by consequences of acting on the environment
When must the reward or punishment occur in operant conditioning and why?
Immediately as we are driven by short-term rewards regardless of rationale
How can behaviour be shaped using operant conditioning?
How are conditioning theories limited?
Only consider stimulus-response associations w/o cognitive processes, knowledge, beliefs, memory, attitudes, expectations of social context
What is social learning?
Vicarious learning by seeing the consequences of other's actions
What is behaviour focused on in social learning?
Desired goals that are valued and individual has self-efficacy for
What forms the basis of role models?
What perceptions make a good role model?
What does social learning theory suggest should be used for health education and health campaigns?
Peers and celebrities
What are the 4 social cognition models?
Cognitive dissonance theory
Health belief model
Theory of planned behaviour
Stages of change (transtheoretical) model
What is cognitive dissonance theory?
Change beliefs or behaviour in order to decrease discomfort experienced when beliefs are inconsistent with actions/events
How can cognitive dissonance theory be used in health promotion?
Provide usually uncomfortable health information about negative health behaviours
How can dissonance be solved without changing behaviour?
Denial of information
What does the health belief model state?
States people weigh-up beliefs and risks before acting
What two categories of beliefs are considered in the health belief model?
Beliefs about health threat
Beliefs about health-related behaviour
What beliefs about health threat are considered in the health belief model?
What beliefs about health-related behaviour are considered in the health belief model?
What also influences the beliefs considered in the health belief model to cause an action?
Cues to action
What does the health belief model not consider?
Whether we weigh-up a decision before or after an event
What is the generally preferred model of social cognition?
Theory of planned behaviour
What does the theory of planned behaviour consider?
How is the gap between intention and behaviour bridged?
Creating detailed plans of action
What does the theory of planned behaviour state influences the development of an intention?
Attitude toward resultant behaviour
What influences attitude towards behaviour?
Belief about and evaluation of outcomes
What influences subjective norm?
Motivation to comply
What influences perceived control?
Individual control barriers and facilitators
What does the transtheoretical model of social cognition state?
Factors affecting behaviours are not static
What are the stages of the transtheoretical model?
Describe the pre contemplation stage of the transtheoretical model.
Happy with behaviour and may be affronted if change is suggested
Describe the contemplation stage of the transtheoretical model.
Realisation that changing behaviour may be beneficial
Describe the preparation stage of the transtheoretical model.
Decision made to adopt new behaviour
Describe the action stage of the transtheoretical model.
Intention translates to behaviour
Describe the maintenance stage of the transtheoretical model.
Plan is in action, behaviour is successfully carried out
Is relapse normal in the transtheoretical model?
Yes, often more than once in long term change
What can interplay with social cognition models to affect behaviours?
Healthcare policies, systems, communities and environment
What are health related behaviours?
Anything that may promote good health or lead to illness
What creates a greater health burden than illicit drug use, displays the same pattern of compulsivity but is not considered as much of a negative health behaviour?
Processed food and sugar consumption
Which model must be used when considering health behaviours?
What can be more important than the substance itself in determining outcome of substance misuse?
Mind set and setting
What factors interact in substance misuse and create a cycle which is hard to escape unless holistic help is given?
Social, environmental and interpersonal factors
Psychological and emotional factors
Describe the overall trends in drug use for both 16-59 y.o. and 16-24 y.o..
Overall tends both stable
Overall use declined in both populations
What can lead to substance addiction in atypical populations, e.g. the elderly?
Iatrogenic: prescription of 'safe' barbiturates that leads to addiciton
What are 'designer drugs'?
Legal compounds with a slightly different structure but similar effects to illicit drugs
How does each new wave of designer drugs compare to the previous?
Tend to be more dangerous
What is the purpose of the Psychoactive Substance Bill 2015?
Change legislation to create universal ban with exception to prevent 'leap frogging'
What are the 5 classes of alcohol use?
Who fits into the low risk alcohol use catogery?
Abstinence or people who drink within DoH guidelines and are at low risk of harmful effects
Who fits into the hazardous drinking category of alcohol use?
Over sensible limit either regularly excessive or infrequent binge therefore at increased risk of alcohol related problems but are yet to present
Who fits into the harmful drinking category of alcohol use?
Over sensible limit, typically more than hazardous drinkers and show harm as a consequence
Do all harmful drinkers understand the link between their drinking and physical/mental harm experienced?
What is moderate alcohol dependence?
Degree of dependence but not relief drinking to avoid withdrawal symptoms
What management are moderately dependent alcohol drinkers suitable for?
What is severe alcohol dependence?
May form habit of drinking to avoid withdrawal symptoms which often need in-pt detox
What complex needs may severe dependence alcohol drinkers have?
Multiple previous Tx episodes
Which two classes of drugs can be used in treatment of severe alcohol dependence?
Substitute prescribing to Tx dependence
What management is very effective for hazardous and harmful drinkers?
Brief interventions such as alcohol screening tools that give immediate feedback and can be addressed with leaflets etc
Give some examples of alcohol screening tests.
CAGE: cut down, annoyed, guilt, eye opener
AUDIT: alcohol use disorders identification unit
FAST: fast alcohol screening test
PAT: Paddington alcohol test
Why do tranquillisers have to be able to be mixed with alcohol when used in alcohol detoxification?
Cold-turkey approach is very dangerous
What supportive treatments are needed in management of alcohol use?
Nutritional supplements including vitamin B, B complex and thiamine to reduce risk of debilitating neurological conditions
What can be used to promote abstinence and prevent relapse in management of alcohol use?
Why does disulfram have poor compliance?
Has unpleasant effects
What is needed in acute intoxication when seen in alcohol misuse?
Usual emergency monitoring
Management of withdrawal if necessary