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Flashcards in HealthPsych Session 2 Deck (68):
1

Why are health related behaviours having an increasing impact?

Leading cause of death is chronic diseases which these play a significant role in

2

What do learning theories consider?

How behaviour patterns are learned without conscious input

3

What is classical conditioning?

Unconscious linking of behaviours to unrelated stimuli

4

How can behaviours be prevented in classical conditioning?

Pair behaviour with unpleasant response
Create an obstruction between stimulus and behaviour to allow time to pause and think

5

Is classical conditioning limited to children?

No

6

What is operant conditioning?

Behaviour shaped by consequences of acting on the environment

7

When must the reward or punishment occur in operant conditioning and why?

Immediately as we are driven by short-term rewards regardless of rationale

8

How can behaviour be shaped using operant conditioning?

Through reinforcement

9

How are conditioning theories limited?

Only consider stimulus-response associations w/o cognitive processes, knowledge, beliefs, memory, attitudes, expectations of social context

10

What is social learning?

Vicarious learning by seeing the consequences of other's actions

11

What is behaviour focused on in social learning?

Desired goals that are valued and individual has self-efficacy for

12

What forms the basis of role models?

Social learning

13

What perceptions make a good role model?

High status
'Like us'

14

What does social learning theory suggest should be used for health education and health campaigns?

Peers and celebrities

15

What are the 4 social cognition models?

Cognitive dissonance theory
Health belief model
Theory of planned behaviour
Stages of change (transtheoretical) model

16

What is cognitive dissonance theory?

Change beliefs or behaviour in order to decrease discomfort experienced when beliefs are inconsistent with actions/events

17

How can cognitive dissonance theory be used in health promotion?

Provide usually uncomfortable health information about negative health behaviours

18

How can dissonance be solved without changing behaviour?

Denial of information

19

What does the health belief model state?

States people weigh-up beliefs and risks before acting

20

What two categories of beliefs are considered in the health belief model?

Beliefs about health threat
Beliefs about health-related behaviour

21

What beliefs about health threat are considered in the health belief model?

Perceived susceptibility
Perceived severity

22

What beliefs about health-related behaviour are considered in the health belief model?

Perceived benefits
Perceived barriers

23

What also influences the beliefs considered in the health belief model to cause an action?

Cues to action

24

What does the health belief model not consider?

Whether we weigh-up a decision before or after an event
Emotions acting
Social factors
Self efficacy

25

What is the generally preferred model of social cognition?

Theory of planned behaviour

26

What does the theory of planned behaviour consider?

Person's intentions

27

How is the gap between intention and behaviour bridged?

Creating detailed plans of action

28

What does the theory of planned behaviour state influences the development of an intention?

Attitude toward resultant behaviour
Subjective norm
Perceived control

29

What influences attitude towards behaviour?

Belief about and evaluation of outcomes

30

What influences subjective norm?

Normative beliefs
Motivation to comply

31

What influences perceived control?

Individual control barriers and facilitators

32

What does the transtheoretical model of social cognition state?

Factors affecting behaviours are not static

33

What are the stages of the transtheoretical model?

Pre contemplation
Contemplation
Preparation
Action
Maintenance
Relapse

34

Describe the pre contemplation stage of the transtheoretical model.

Happy with behaviour and may be affronted if change is suggested

35

Describe the contemplation stage of the transtheoretical model.

Realisation that changing behaviour may be beneficial

36

Describe the preparation stage of the transtheoretical model.

Decision made to adopt new behaviour

37

Describe the action stage of the transtheoretical model.

Intention translates to behaviour

38

Describe the maintenance stage of the transtheoretical model.

Plan is in action, behaviour is successfully carried out

39

Is relapse normal in the transtheoretical model?

Yes, often more than once in long term change

40

What can interplay with social cognition models to affect behaviours?

Healthcare policies, systems, communities and environment

41

What are health related behaviours?

Anything that may promote good health or lead to illness

42

What creates a greater health burden than illicit drug use, displays the same pattern of compulsivity but is not considered as much of a negative health behaviour?

Processed food and sugar consumption

43

Which model must be used when considering health behaviours?

Biopsychosocial

44

What can be more important than the substance itself in determining outcome of substance misuse?

Mind set and setting

45

What factors interact in substance misuse and create a cycle which is hard to escape unless holistic help is given?

Cause
Social, environmental and interpersonal factors
Psychological and emotional factors
Effect

46

Describe the overall trends in drug use for both 16-59 y.o. and 16-24 y.o..

Overall tends both stable
Overall use declined in both populations

47

What can lead to substance addiction in atypical populations, e.g. the elderly?

Iatrogenic: prescription of 'safe' barbiturates that leads to addiciton

48

What are 'designer drugs'?

Legal compounds with a slightly different structure but similar effects to illicit drugs

49

How does each new wave of designer drugs compare to the previous?

Tend to be more dangerous

50

What is the purpose of the Psychoactive Substance Bill 2015?

Change legislation to create universal ban with exception to prevent 'leap frogging'

51

What are the 5 classes of alcohol use?

Low risk
Hazardous drinking
Harmful drinking
Moderate dependence
Severe dependence

52

Who fits into the low risk alcohol use catogery?

Abstinence or people who drink within DoH guidelines and are at low risk of harmful effects

53

Who fits into the hazardous drinking category of alcohol use?

Over sensible limit either regularly excessive or infrequent binge therefore at increased risk of alcohol related problems but are yet to present

54

Who fits into the harmful drinking category of alcohol use?

Over sensible limit, typically more than hazardous drinkers and show harm as a consequence

55

Do all harmful drinkers understand the link between their drinking and physical/mental harm experienced?

No

56

What is moderate alcohol dependence?

Degree of dependence but not relief drinking to avoid withdrawal symptoms

57

What management are moderately dependent alcohol drinkers suitable for?

Community detox

58

What is severe alcohol dependence?

May form habit of drinking to avoid withdrawal symptoms which often need in-pt detox

59

What complex needs may severe dependence alcohol drinkers have?

Psychiatric problems
Poly-drug dependence
Homelessness
Multiple previous Tx episodes

60

Which two classes of drugs can be used in treatment of severe alcohol dependence?

Assisted detox
Substitute prescribing to Tx dependence

61

What management is very effective for hazardous and harmful drinkers?

Brief interventions such as alcohol screening tools that give immediate feedback and can be addressed with leaflets etc

62

Give some examples of alcohol screening tests.

CAGE: cut down, annoyed, guilt, eye opener
AUDIT: alcohol use disorders identification unit
FAST: fast alcohol screening test
PAT: Paddington alcohol test

63

Why do tranquillisers have to be able to be mixed with alcohol when used in alcohol detoxification?

Cold-turkey approach is very dangerous

64

What supportive treatments are needed in management of alcohol use?

Nutritional supplements including vitamin B, B complex and thiamine to reduce risk of debilitating neurological conditions

65

What can be used to promote abstinence and prevent relapse in management of alcohol use?

Sensitising agents

66

Why does disulfram have poor compliance?

Has unpleasant effects

67

What is needed in acute intoxication when seen in alcohol misuse?

Usual emergency monitoring
Thiamine
Management of withdrawal if necessary

68

What groups can recreational drugs usually be clustered into according to their effects?

Depressants and dissociatives (alcohol and benzos)
Stimulants and empathogens (speed, cocaine, caffeine)
Hallucinogens and cannabis (magic mushrooms)
Opiates and opioids (heroin, methadone)