Flashcards in HealthPsych Session 1 Deck (45):
Why did the biomedical model work in the early 20th century but doesn't apply today?
Top killers have changed from infectious to chronic diseases
What is the biopsychosocial model?
Biological, social and psychological factors all impact on health and illness
What biological factors are considered in the biopsychosocial model?
What social factors are considered in the biopsychosocial model?
What psychological factors are considered in the biopsychosocial model?
What are stereotypes?
Social schemata about people, roles and relationships with prone to an emphasis on -ve traits
What are the advantages and disadvantages of using stereotypes?
A: helpful shortcuts, decrease processing power
D: discount individual differences, can lead to prejudice
What are schemata?
Groups of related information used to organise knowledge
What is the purpose of organising information in schemata?
Save processing power when faced with a situation similar to one we have encountered before --> environment more predictable, allows anticipation, avoids info overload
What does organising information into schemata not reflect?
Are stereotypes easy to change?
No, they are resistant to change
Why do we naturally assign people to categories?
Help us to understand our social environment
Why do we adopt the characteristics of the group we identify most with?
How does the focus of attributes change when considering our own group in comparison to other groups?
Tend to focus on +ve attributes of our group and -ve of others
What cognitive and emotive components lead to discrimination?
Stereotypes (cognitive) --> prejudice (emotive) --> discrimination
When are we more likely to rely on stereotypes?
Under time pressure
What can help to challenge -ve stereotypes?
Getting to know members of groups other than your own
Why do we need to be vigilant when considering our own and other people's behaviour?
It is influenced by social and cognitive processes we may not be aware of
What is the biomedical model?
Illness understood in terms of biological and physiological processes - Dr as mechanic
What does examination of depression and dementia in against populations show?
Exponential increase in dementia cases with age
No change in rates of depression
Why are stereotypes less effective with increasing age?
Diversity increases with age due to life experiences
What is dementia?
Level of cognitive impairment causing disability
Which component of intelligence is the most age-sensitive?
What is crystallised intelligence?
Highly learnt skills and general knowledge
What is fluid intelligence?
Problem solving in new situations
Is fluid intelligence or crystallised intelligence more useful for everyday life?
What explains 'terminal drop'?
Increased frailty and physiological problems cause a large decrease in in intelligence in the last year or two of life
Do all aspects of memory function behave the same at different ages?
What can affect different behaviours of memory function other than age?
Disease e.g. Dementia, Alzheimer's
What is Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI)?
A level of cognitive impairment that does not cause disability
What can MCI progress to?
Dementia but pts often die before progression
What is the activity model in ageing?
Sphere successful ageing requires maximal engagement in all areas of life
Do personality traits fluctuate or remain stable with age?
What is the disengagement model of ageing?
Successful ageing is achieved when the individual stops seeking social, relationship and intelligence activities
What is successful ageing?
Where individual feels well adjusted and contented
Is the activity or disengagement model of ageing more common?
How can families adversely affect ageing?
Empty nest --> loss of identity as parent
Grandparenthood --> unfulfilled expectations due to unsatisfactory relationships
Changing patterns of family contact
Why might friends be considered as next of kin by elderly pts?
Changing patterns of family contact causing greater importance of friendships
Can grandparenthood be beneficial in ageing?
Yes, can create new identity if relationship is satisfactory
Which gender is generally better at forming new relationships after losing those at work following retirement?
What are the negative impacts of work and retirement on ageing?
Loss of manifest (pension
Who usually suffers more in retirement?
People who are emotionally invested in their work
What can lead to social rejection in death and bereavement?
Reluctance to acknowledge mortality
Is bereavement more common in old age?
No but the probability of it being more significant is higher