HealthPsych Session 1 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in HealthPsych Session 1 Deck (45):
1

Why did the biomedical model work in the early 20th century but doesn't apply today?

Top killers have changed from infectious to chronic diseases

2

What is the biopsychosocial model?

Biological, social and psychological factors all impact on health and illness

3

What biological factors are considered in the biopsychosocial model?

Physiology
Genetics
Pathogens

4

What social factors are considered in the biopsychosocial model?

Social class
Employment
Social support

5

What psychological factors are considered in the biopsychosocial model?

Cognition
Emotion
Behaviour

6

What are stereotypes?

Social schemata about people, roles and relationships with prone to an emphasis on -ve traits

7

What are the advantages and disadvantages of using stereotypes?

A: helpful shortcuts, decrease processing power
D: discount individual differences, can lead to prejudice

8

What are schemata?

Groups of related information used to organise knowledge

9

What is the purpose of organising information in schemata?

Save processing power when faced with a situation similar to one we have encountered before --> environment more predictable, allows anticipation, avoids info overload

10

What does organising information into schemata not reflect?

Diversity

11

Are stereotypes easy to change?

No, they are resistant to change

12

Why do we naturally assign people to categories?

Help us to understand our social environment

13

Why do we adopt the characteristics of the group we identify most with?

Build self-esteem

14

How does the focus of attributes change when considering our own group in comparison to other groups?

Tend to focus on +ve attributes of our group and -ve of others

15

What cognitive and emotive components lead to discrimination?

Stereotypes (cognitive) --> prejudice (emotive) --> discrimination

16

When are we more likely to rely on stereotypes?

Under time pressure
Fatigued
Overstretched

17

What can help to challenge -ve stereotypes?

Getting to know members of groups other than your own
Reflective practice

18

Why do we need to be vigilant when considering our own and other people's behaviour?

It is influenced by social and cognitive processes we may not be aware of

19

What is the biomedical model?

Illness understood in terms of biological and physiological processes - Dr as mechanic

20

What does examination of depression and dementia in against populations show?

Exponential increase in dementia cases with age
No change in rates of depression

21

Why are stereotypes less effective with increasing age?

Diversity increases with age due to life experiences

22

What is dementia?

Level of cognitive impairment causing disability

23

Which component of intelligence is the most age-sensitive?

Processing speed

24

What is crystallised intelligence?

Highly learnt skills and general knowledge

25

What is fluid intelligence?

Problem solving in new situations

26

Is fluid intelligence or crystallised intelligence more useful for everyday life?

Crystallised

27

What explains 'terminal drop'?

Increased frailty and physiological problems cause a large decrease in in intelligence in the last year or two of life

28

Do all aspects of memory function behave the same at different ages?

No

29

What can affect different behaviours of memory function other than age?

Disease e.g. Dementia, Alzheimer's

30

What is Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI)?

A level of cognitive impairment that does not cause disability

31

What can MCI progress to?

Dementia but pts often die before progression

32

What is the activity model in ageing?

Sphere successful ageing requires maximal engagement in all areas of life

33

Do personality traits fluctuate or remain stable with age?

Remain stable

34

What is the disengagement model of ageing?

Successful ageing is achieved when the individual stops seeking social, relationship and intelligence activities

35

What is successful ageing?

Where individual feels well adjusted and contented

36

Is the activity or disengagement model of ageing more common?

Activity

37

How can families adversely affect ageing?

Empty nest --> loss of identity as parent
Grandparenthood --> unfulfilled expectations due to unsatisfactory relationships
Changing patterns of family contact

38

Why might friends be considered as next of kin by elderly pts?

Changing patterns of family contact causing greater importance of friendships

39

Can grandparenthood be beneficial in ageing?

Yes, can create new identity if relationship is satisfactory

40

Which gender is generally better at forming new relationships after losing those at work following retirement?

Females

41

What are the negative impacts of work and retirement on ageing?

Loss of manifest (pension

42

Who usually suffers more in retirement?

People who are emotionally invested in their work

43

What can lead to social rejection in death and bereavement?

Reluctance to acknowledge mortality

44

Is bereavement more common in old age?

No but the probability of it being more significant is higher

45

What result does enforced limitations in housing, mobitility etc have on the diversity of older people?

Increases