HealthPsych Session 6 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in HealthPsych Session 6 Deck (59):
1

What two types of behaviour do children exhibit in attachment?

Proximity seeking
Contact maintaining

2

What is the critical period in attachment theory?

Within first year infant forms first 'mental model' of relationship based on their primary care giver

3

How long does the critical period in attachment theory need to be maintained for?

First 4 years of life

4

What does an infant with a secure attachment learn and experience?

Worthy of love and care
Others will be available in times of need
Better brain development, social competence, peer relations, self reliance physical and emotional health

5

What behavioural changes arise as a result of absence of an attachment figure?

Separation anxiety
Increased aggression
Clinging behaviour
Bed wetting
Detachment

6

What is the physical impact of an absent attachment figure?

Depression
Slower movement
Decreased play
Lack of sleep
Altered HR and temperature

7

What do newborns prefer over inanimate objects?

Human faces

8

What is first seen at around 6 weeks in social development?

Social smile

9

Describe the stage of social development seem at around 3 months of age.

Able to distinguish and show preference for non-strangers over strangers
Will allow any caring adult to handle them w/o becoming unduly upset

10

Describe the stage of social development attained at 7-8 months of age.

Specific attachments formed
Show signs of distress if key people are absent
Wary of strangers picking them up even when key people are present

11

What are the 4 attachment styles?

Secure
Avoidant
Ambivalent
Disorganised

12

How does a child react to the 'strange situation' test when they have a secure attachment style?

Distressed when mother leaves
Avoids stranger when alone
+ve and happy when mother returns and will engage w/strange

13

What characteristics does the primary care giver possess when a secure attachment is formed?

Sensitive to child's signals and gives rapid, appropriate and consistent response
Interactive synchrony
Carer accepts caring/parental role
Carer has higher self esteem

14

How will a child who has an avoidant attachment react to the strange situation test?

Doesn't pay much attention to mother or stranger

15

What kind of primary care giver is associated with an avoidant attachment style?

Those who respond variably to child's distress

16

How does a child with an ambivalent attachment respond to the strange situation test?

Intensive distress without mother
Fears stranger
Cries upon mother's return

17

What are children with ambivalent attachment preoccupied with?

Is primary care giver there?

18

What characteristic of the primary care giver is associated with an ambivalent attachment style?

Gives variable response to child

19

How does a child with a disorganised attachment style react to the strange situation test?

Freezes on return of mother

20

What is disorganised attachment associated with in terms of the primary care giver?

Maltreatment of child
Depression affecting care giver

21

What is attachment?

Biologically based system to maintain proximity of infant care giver

22

What three stages are the result of separation?

Protest --> despair --> detachment

23

Describe the protest stage of separation.

Child is distressed, looks for mother, clings to substitute

24

How long does the protest stage of separation last?

Hrs-days

25

What happens during the despair stage of separation?

Helplessness
Withdrawn
Intermittently cry

26

What happens during the detachment stage of separation?

Become more interested in surroundings
Smile and be sociable but when carer returns become remote and apathetic

27

At what stage of separation do children no longer look to care giver for comfort?

Detachment

28

Why does separation cause the most overly stress for children aged 6m-3yrs?

They lack ability to keep carer in mind
Struggle to understand explanatory vocab
Lack ability to understand abstract concepts

29

How do children aged 6m-3yrs rationalise separation?

Attribute abandonment to being a punishment for their own failing

30

What are the effects on health outcomes of separation and why?

Separation is a long term stressor therefore leads to worse compliance and pain as well as the physiological effects of prolonged stress

31

What are the criticisms of attachment theory?

Too simplistic
Overly focused in mothers, fathers marginalised so doesn't take into account multiple attachment figures
Quality of substitute care not considered

32

How has practice changed from the 1950/60s to present day with regards to attachment theory?

Child care environments more like home
Allow parent/carer access
Allow attachment objects
Reassure child they are not being abandoned/punished
Stimulating toys
Continuity of staff

33

What are Piaget's stages of cognitive development?

Sensori-motor
Pre-operational
Concrete operational
Formal operational

34

What are the problems with Piaget's stages of childhood cognitive development?

Doesn't account for level of abstractness of concept
Overestimation of adult ability
Development may be more gradual than steps suggest
Focuses on what child cannot do rather than abilities
Allows child to be deemed too young for full information causing them to make their own interpretations from the partial info they are given

35

Describe the sensori-motor stage of childhood cognitive development.

Organise brain into motor and sensory by developing motor coordination
Cannot understand abstract concepts
Develop body schema

36

When does the sensorimotor stage of childhood cognitive development occur?

0-2 years

37

When does an understanding of permanence develop in childhood cognitive development?

~8 months

38

When does the pre-operational stage of cognitive development take place?

2-7 years

39

Describe the pre-operational stage of cognitive development.

Language develops
Symbolic thought and imagination but it always distinguished from reality
Egocentricism
Lack concept of conservation
Classification by single feature only
Lack concept of some things being irreversible

40

When does the concrete operational stage of cognitive development occur?

7-12 years

41

Describe the concrete stage of cognitive development.

Think logically
Struggle with deductive reasoning
Achieve concept of conservation of number, mass and weight
Classification by multiple factors
Able to see things from other's perspectives

42

When does the formal operational stage of cognitive development occur?

12 yrs+

43

Describe the formal operational stage of cognitive development.

Abstract logic
Hypothetic-deductive reasoning

44

How does social development theory affect cognitive development?

Child is an apprentice learning through shared problem solving, child alone has understanding x, but with able instruction child can achieve x+1

45

What is the zone of proximal development?

Potential higher level of understanding which can be achieved with able instruction

46

What things should be remembered when communicating with children?

Young children have egocentricism (pain)
May struggle to articulate feelings
Metaphors can be taken literally --> unnecessary worry
Difficulty thinking about future which can have implications in consent and adherence

47

How can communication be tailored to a child's specific level of cognitive development?

Use diagrams, models, picture books, play specialists

48

What is social referencing?

At 7-8 months children look at primary care givers to see how they react to abnormal situations

49

How can social referencing be used to calm a child in a consultation?

Initial contact with parents/carers puts them at ease which child sees and thus calms child

50

How can parental understanding affect child compliance?

If parents don't understand treatment or if the parents don't have the same level of understanding the child will not comply

51

What communication needs do babies and infants require?

Motor
Sensory
Non-verbal cues inc. touch

52

What is a good indicator of cognitive development?

Language

53

What is it important to remember when using language as a measure of cognitive development?

English may not be their first language

54

What is needed between verbal and non-verbal cues when communicating with children?

Consistency

55

What are factors to consider when communicating with adolescents?

Increasing independence
Increasing abstract understanding inc. future
Risk taking
Self awareness
Conflict with parents --> less communication

56

How should communicating with disabled children be approached?

Assess level of understanding --> assess level of skill of communication --> visual cues, explain to parents so they can explain to child, use alternate communication

57

What method of communicating with children can be used to examine parent's understanding?

Explaining the information to the parents so they can explain it to the child

58

What should you do when communicating with a child?

Reflect verbal w/non-verbal cues
Maintain good eye contact
Remain calm
OWL-observe, wait, listen
Give simple, clear info
Give fixed choices

59

What should you not do when communicating with a child?

Promise things you can't deliver
Express frustration
Place blame/criticism
Expect same things at different or same ages
Rush Qs and As
Ask too many questions at once