Flashcards in HealthPsych Session 6 Deck (59):
What two types of behaviour do children exhibit in attachment?
What is the critical period in attachment theory?
Within first year infant forms first 'mental model' of relationship based on their primary care giver
How long does the critical period in attachment theory need to be maintained for?
First 4 years of life
What does an infant with a secure attachment learn and experience?
Worthy of love and care
Others will be available in times of need
Better brain development, social competence, peer relations, self reliance physical and emotional health
What behavioural changes arise as a result of absence of an attachment figure?
What is the physical impact of an absent attachment figure?
Lack of sleep
Altered HR and temperature
What do newborns prefer over inanimate objects?
What is first seen at around 6 weeks in social development?
Describe the stage of social development seem at around 3 months of age.
Able to distinguish and show preference for non-strangers over strangers
Will allow any caring adult to handle them w/o becoming unduly upset
Describe the stage of social development attained at 7-8 months of age.
Specific attachments formed
Show signs of distress if key people are absent
Wary of strangers picking them up even when key people are present
What are the 4 attachment styles?
How does a child react to the 'strange situation' test when they have a secure attachment style?
Distressed when mother leaves
Avoids stranger when alone
+ve and happy when mother returns and will engage w/strange
What characteristics does the primary care giver possess when a secure attachment is formed?
Sensitive to child's signals and gives rapid, appropriate and consistent response
Carer accepts caring/parental role
Carer has higher self esteem
How will a child who has an avoidant attachment react to the strange situation test?
Doesn't pay much attention to mother or stranger
What kind of primary care giver is associated with an avoidant attachment style?
Those who respond variably to child's distress
How does a child with an ambivalent attachment respond to the strange situation test?
Intensive distress without mother
Cries upon mother's return
What are children with ambivalent attachment preoccupied with?
Is primary care giver there?
What characteristic of the primary care giver is associated with an ambivalent attachment style?
Gives variable response to child
How does a child with a disorganised attachment style react to the strange situation test?
Freezes on return of mother
What is disorganised attachment associated with in terms of the primary care giver?
Maltreatment of child
Depression affecting care giver
What is attachment?
Biologically based system to maintain proximity of infant care giver
What three stages are the result of separation?
Protest --> despair --> detachment
Describe the protest stage of separation.
Child is distressed, looks for mother, clings to substitute
How long does the protest stage of separation last?
What happens during the despair stage of separation?
What happens during the detachment stage of separation?
Become more interested in surroundings
Smile and be sociable but when carer returns become remote and apathetic
At what stage of separation do children no longer look to care giver for comfort?
Why does separation cause the most overly stress for children aged 6m-3yrs?
They lack ability to keep carer in mind
Struggle to understand explanatory vocab
Lack ability to understand abstract concepts
How do children aged 6m-3yrs rationalise separation?
Attribute abandonment to being a punishment for their own failing
What are the effects on health outcomes of separation and why?
Separation is a long term stressor therefore leads to worse compliance and pain as well as the physiological effects of prolonged stress
What are the criticisms of attachment theory?
Overly focused in mothers, fathers marginalised so doesn't take into account multiple attachment figures
Quality of substitute care not considered
How has practice changed from the 1950/60s to present day with regards to attachment theory?
Child care environments more like home
Allow parent/carer access
Allow attachment objects
Reassure child they are not being abandoned/punished
Continuity of staff
What are Piaget's stages of cognitive development?
What are the problems with Piaget's stages of childhood cognitive development?
Doesn't account for level of abstractness of concept
Overestimation of adult ability
Development may be more gradual than steps suggest
Focuses on what child cannot do rather than abilities
Allows child to be deemed too young for full information causing them to make their own interpretations from the partial info they are given
Describe the sensori-motor stage of childhood cognitive development.
Organise brain into motor and sensory by developing motor coordination
Cannot understand abstract concepts
Develop body schema
When does the sensorimotor stage of childhood cognitive development occur?
When does an understanding of permanence develop in childhood cognitive development?
When does the pre-operational stage of cognitive development take place?
Describe the pre-operational stage of cognitive development.
Symbolic thought and imagination but it always distinguished from reality
Lack concept of conservation
Classification by single feature only
Lack concept of some things being irreversible
When does the concrete operational stage of cognitive development occur?
Describe the concrete stage of cognitive development.
Struggle with deductive reasoning
Achieve concept of conservation of number, mass and weight
Classification by multiple factors
Able to see things from other's perspectives
When does the formal operational stage of cognitive development occur?
Describe the formal operational stage of cognitive development.
How does social development theory affect cognitive development?
Child is an apprentice learning through shared problem solving, child alone has understanding x, but with able instruction child can achieve x+1
What is the zone of proximal development?
Potential higher level of understanding which can be achieved with able instruction
What things should be remembered when communicating with children?
Young children have egocentricism (pain)
May struggle to articulate feelings
Metaphors can be taken literally --> unnecessary worry
Difficulty thinking about future which can have implications in consent and adherence
How can communication be tailored to a child's specific level of cognitive development?
Use diagrams, models, picture books, play specialists
What is social referencing?
At 7-8 months children look at primary care givers to see how they react to abnormal situations
How can social referencing be used to calm a child in a consultation?
Initial contact with parents/carers puts them at ease which child sees and thus calms child
How can parental understanding affect child compliance?
If parents don't understand treatment or if the parents don't have the same level of understanding the child will not comply
What communication needs do babies and infants require?
Non-verbal cues inc. touch
What is a good indicator of cognitive development?
What is it important to remember when using language as a measure of cognitive development?
English may not be their first language
What is needed between verbal and non-verbal cues when communicating with children?
What are factors to consider when communicating with adolescents?
Increasing abstract understanding inc. future
Conflict with parents --> less communication
How should communicating with disabled children be approached?
Assess level of understanding --> assess level of skill of communication --> visual cues, explain to parents so they can explain to child, use alternate communication
What method of communicating with children can be used to examine parent's understanding?
Explaining the information to the parents so they can explain it to the child
What should you do when communicating with a child?
Reflect verbal w/non-verbal cues
Maintain good eye contact
OWL-observe, wait, listen
Give simple, clear info
Give fixed choices