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Flashcards in Helminths Deck (68):
1

What are nemotodes and what are playhelminthes

nemotodes are round worms
playhelminthes are flat worms

2

What intestinal nematodes are acquired by ingestion of eggs

Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris richuria and Enterobius vermicularis(pin worm

3

What round worms usually penetrate skin of feet

Necator amricanus and Stronglyoides stercoralis

4

What round worm is ingested in port meat with larvae

Trichincella spiralis

5

What round worms invade the lung at some point in their cycle

Ascaris lumbricoides, Necator Americanus and Stronglyoides stercoralis

6

Where and how do people acquire ascaris lumbricoides

mountainouse and tropical areas souther US
consume food with the eggs

7

Where do the larvae of Ascaris grow

in lung alveolie then coughed up swallowed and mature in intestines

8

What happens with the eggs of Strongyloides stercoralis

Autoinfection-larvae penetrate intestine directly
Direct cycle- larvae pass out in feces and infect next person
Indirect- in soil the filariform larvae develop into male and female adults then fertllze eggs and the larvae hatch and reinfect

9

What is involved in severe infections with Ascaris

worm invasion into bile ducts, gall bladder and appendix and liver
in lung have pulmonary infiltrate on CXR with high eosinphilia

10

Dx of any types of the worms?

eggs in feces

11

What drugs are used to treat intestinal nematodes

Mebendazole
Albendazole
Thiabendazole

12

To selectively target Enterobius or Necator or Ascaris what drug can you give

pyrantel pamoate

13

What can an infection by hookworms cause
Ascaris
Necator

iron deficiency anemia since suck blood

14

What do you avoid during Tx of Stronglyoides stercoralis

prednisone or other steroids because can result in severe auto infection of pneumonia ARDS and multi-organ failure

15

What is the enterotest

long nylon string is swalled and later pulled out of the mouth to see larvae of stronglyoides

16

What is the sensitive test for stronglyoides infection

ELISA Ab assay

17

Describe the cycle of Trichinella Spiralis

adult males are passed in feces
females penetrate intestinal mucosa and lay thougsands of larvae that enter blood and spread to organs and skel muscle

18

What are the symptoms of Trichinella Spiralis infection

1 week after intestinal invasian there may be fevers and musclar aches

19

How do you Dx trichinella piralis

serologic tests or muscle biopsy
Increase levels of eos
increased serum muscle enzymes like CPK

20

What is the whipworm

Trichuris trichuria

21

how come pinworm and whipworm do not have elvated eosinphilis

because there is no transit outside of the intestine

22

Where do the whip worm larvae adhere

cecum and ascending colon

23

Why is there no autoinfectino with whipworm

eggs need to incubate 3-6 weeks in soild before infective

24

PAtient has feces that have little football with bumps on the end

trichuris trichuria infection
whipworm

25

What are symptoms of whipworm infection

diarrhea and abdominal pain

26

What is the pinworm and where does it mature

Enterobius vermicularis
matures in the ascending colon

27

What is unique about the female enterobius worm

at night migrates to perianal area where she lays her egs causing severe perianal itching

28

How do you Dx pinworm

scotch tape test for eggs

29

How are blood and tissue nematodes spread?

bites from arthropods
they are called filariae

30

What are the prelarval filariae forms of tissue nematodes

microfilariae

31

When do we encounter disease from tissue nematodes

when the microfilariae and adult worms are dead in lymphatic system
allergic reaction

32

What are filarial parasites hosts to

Wolbachia bacteria
so we can target them to kill the parasites

33

What filarial infection is common in Africa, Central and /south America in the black flies

Onchocerca volvulus

34

what are signs of Onchocerca volvulus

pruritic skin rash with darkened pigmentation
papular lesions that are intraepithelial granulmomas
dry, scaly and thick
often migrates to eye causing blindness

35

What is Tx for Onchocerca volvulus

ivermectin

36

What tissue nematodes result in elephatiasis? and in what geographical areas?

Wechereria bancrofti- Pacific islands and Africa
Brugia malayi- Malay and SE asia

37

What transmits the elephatiasis causing nematodes?
what is elephatiasis

mosquito
the lymph edematous areas become covered in a thick scaly skin

38

What can frequent infections of Wechereria and Brugia cause

febrile episodes with HA and swollen inguinal lymph nodes'sometimes fibrosis in lymph areas

39

How do you Dx Wechereria and Brugia

blood drawn and nighttime
Nocturnal periodicity
or Ab titers via immunofluorescence

40

Tx for elephatiasis

Diethylcarbamazine

41

What is the spp guinea worm

Dracunculus medinensis

42

how do we prevent spread of guinea worm infections

avoid water because female releases eggs in water

43

What is cutaneous larvae migrans

creeping eruption of pruritic skin from larvae of cat and dog hookworms
raised itchy rash

44

How do you Dx what is causing a cutaneous larvae migrans

biopsy of advancing edge

45

What are the 2 groups of flatworms

Trematodes and Cestodes

46

What are other names for trematodes

flukes like schistosomes

47

What are other names for cestodes

tapeworms

48

Where do shistosomes invade human

venous system

49

What is the name for mature schisostomal larvae

cercariase

50

What form of schistosome can survive human immune system and why

adult worm- think there is molecular mimicry
the mature larvae and eggs stimulate immune response

51

What are the 3 disease syndromes that occur sequentially from schistosomes

Dermatitis at site of penetration
Katayama fever when laying eggs
Chronic fibrosis of organs and blood vessels from chronic inflammation around deposited eggs

52

Describe Katayama fever

4-8 weeks after penetration
fever, hives, HA, weight loss and cough for 3 weeks
lymph node and HSM with eoshinophilia

53

What are sequelae of schistosome infection

portal HTN from blocking venous system
granuloma formation
ulvers
can have hematuria, chornica abdominal pain and diarrhea
brain or SC injury

54

Tx for schistosome infection

praziquantel

55

what is unique about tape worms

hermaphrodites
also need human as host because do not have true digestive tract

56

What is the structure of tapeworms

Scolex- anterior head with suckers
Immature proglottids
mature proglottids- male and female
gravid proglottids- fertilized eggs

57

How do you Tx tapeworm infection

praziquantel and niclosamide

58

what tapeworm is at risk of infected pork meat

tanenia solium

59

What is cysticercosis

when humand ingest the eggs of taenia solium not the encysted larvae
form cystercerci in brain and skel mm
leads to Neurocysticercosis

60

What are symptoms of neurocysticercosis

seziures, obstructive hydrocephalus, focal neurologic deficits
after 5-10 years leak antigenic contents causing seizures, meningitis, hydrocephalus

61

What areas of the world is neurocystercercosis most common cause of seizures

Mexico, Central and south america, Philippines and SE asia

62

What labs help Dx neurocystercosis

CAT scan or biopsy of brain tissue

63

What tapeworm is found in contaminated beef? and what is the risk if have it

Taenia saginata
generally benign, maybe malnutrition and weight loss

64

What worm is found in salmon, trout and pike (freshwater fish)? what can it cause

Diphyllobothrium latum
can cause anemia because likes to absorbe Vit B12

65

What is the dwarf tapeworm and what does it cause

Hymenolepis nana
abdominal pain, and occasionally nausea and vomiting

66

Which worm forms cysts that can compress surrounding structures? what about if rupture

Echinococcus granulosus and multilocularis
inside is allergic causing fluid that may be fatal

67

How do we Tx Echinococcus granulosus

surgical excision or instill saline. idophore and ethanol into cyst to kill contents

68

What is the PAIR method for hydatid cysts

percutaneous aspiration infusion of scolicidal agents and reaspiration