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NCLEX-RN (5) Adult Health > Hematology > Flashcards

Flashcards in Hematology Deck (17)
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1
Describe:

Iron deficiency anemia

Iron deficiency anemia is when there is not enough hemoglobin

It can be caused by blood loss, decreased gastrointestinal absorptions and a diet that lacks iron.

2
Signs and symptoms:

Iron deficiency anemia

  • pallor
  • weakness and fatigue
  • low hemoglobin and hematocrit levels

3

What types of foods are recommended for a client with iron deficiency anemia?

Eat foods that contain iron:

  • meats
  • lentils and beans
  • spinach

4
Medications:

Iron deficiency anemia

  • iron PO 
  • iron IM given Z-track

 

5

Which vitamin should be taken with iron for better absorption?

Vitamin C

  • orange juice
  • strawberries

6

What is a common side effect of taking oral iron pills?

Iron pills can cause constipation and black stools. Take with vitamin C for better absorption and to prevent constipation (orange juice or strawberries).

7

How should liquid iron be taken so that it doesn't stain the teeth?

Drink liquid iron through a straw.

8
Describe:

Vitamin B12 deficiency anemia (pernicious anemia)

Vitamin B12 deficiency anemia (pernicious anemia) is a lack of B12 for 2 reasons:

  1. not enough intake of B12
  2. not able to absorb B12 due to lack of intrinsic factor

9

What is intrinsic factor?

Intrinsic factor is a protein secreted by the gut that is needed to absorb Vitamin B12.

10

Why would a client NOT release intrinsic factor?

The client would NOT release intrinsic factor if they had gastric surgery and the stomach was removed or some other type of gastric disease.

11
Signs and symptoms:

Vitamin B12 Deficiency Anemia

  • pallor
  • fatigue
  • smooth, beefy red tongue
  • paresthesias of the hands and feet

12

How is vitamin B12 deficiency anemia treated if it's from lack of intrinsic factor?

Treat vitamin B12 deficiency with B12 injections:

  • first weekly
  • then monthly for life

13

How is vitamin B12 deficiency anemia treated if it's from a dietary deficiency?

Teach to eat foods high in vitamin B12:

  • protein such as beef, liver, chicken, and fish
  • dairy
  • eggs

14
Describe:

Folate deficiency anemia

Folate deficiency anemia is anemia caused by lack of absorption of folate (vitamin B9).

15
Cause:

Folate deficiency anemia

Folate deficiency anemia causes are due to body not getting enough folate or not absorbing folate:

  • Celiac or Crohn's disease
  • pregnancy: increases folate needs
  • chronic alcoholics

16
Treatment:

Folate deficiency anemia

  • folic acid supplements
  • eat foods high in folate

17

What foods are high in folate?

  • dark, green leafy vegetables
  • meat and legumes
  • nuts
  • eggs

A variety of foods.