Hematology/Inflammation/Immune Flashcards Preview

Amy's Nursing 50B > Hematology/Inflammation/Immune > Flashcards

Flashcards in Hematology/Inflammation/Immune Deck (50):
0

Which organ stores platelets?

Spleen

1

Which organ stores clotting factors?

Liver

2

Which organ produce erythropoietin?

Kidneys

3

What does epotin do?

Stimulates production of RBCs

4

Define pancytopenia.

Entire CBC is low

5

What symptoms are typical of pancytopenia?

Anemia, bleeding, chills

6

Define hemophilia.

Clotting factor deficiency

7

Define nutritional anemia.

Iron deficiency anemia

8

Define megaloblastic anemia.

Vitamin B12 deficiency anemia

9

Define aplastic anemia.

Bone marrow dysfunction in which bone marrow produce to many immature RBCs and not enough mature RBCs

10

What is the physiological action of heparin?

Prevents fibrin from adding to an existing clot

11

What symptoms may present in anemia?

Hypoxia, pallor, alopecia, dizziness, tachycardia, possible kidney damage, splenic enlargement

12

How do you treat chronic anemia?

With epotin

13

MDS

myelodysplastic syndrome; preleukemia characterized as ineffective production of myeloid class of blood cells; can cause patients to develop severe anemias

14

What are autologous PRBCs?

Self donated RBCs

15

What is a nonhemolytic transfusion reaction? How is it treated?

Patient is febrile, but shows no other signs of reaction; treat with tylenol

16

What does it mean when you hear lung crackles during a transfusion? How is it treated?

Heart may be backing up; Stop transfusion temporarily, start back up at a slower rate, possible order for lasix

17

What do you do if a patient receiving a transfusion is febrile, tachycardic, and has back pain?

Stop the transfusion, inform the MD, and send blood back to the lab for analysis

18

What time frame is considered as a delayed transfusion reaction?

5-10 days after

19

What is the time frame for acute transplant rejection?

1-3 weeks

20

What is the time frame for hyperacute transplant rejection?

Hours to days

21

What is the time frame for chronic transplant rejection?

Months to years

22

What precautions are used for transplant patients?

2 minute handwashing, negative pressure room

23

What types of rescue therapies are used for transplant patients?

Plasmaphoresis (filters out antibodies from plasma, then replaces back into body) and IVIG (IV immune globulins)

24

What are the local effects of heat?

vasodilation, increased blood flow, decreased viscosity, increased capillary permeability

25

What are the localized effects of cold?

decreased swelling, decreased pain

26

At what age does the immune system peak?

20-30 years

27

What types of medications are used to treat inflammation?

Antihistamines, antiinflammatories, immune suppressive agents (cytotoxics, steroids)

28

What effect do steroids and cytotoxics have on the immune system?

Immune suppression

29

Normal values: RBC

Females: 4.2-5.4 million/microliter
Males: 4.7-6.1 million/microliter

30

Normal values: Hgb

Females: 12-16 g/dL
Males: 14-18 g/dL

31

Normal values: Hct

Females: 37%-47%
Males: 42%-52%

32

Normal values: WBC

5000-10000/mm3

33

Normal values: retic

0.5%-2% of RBCs

34

Normal values: PLT

150000-400000/mm3

35

Normal values: Segs

62% of WBCs

36

Normal values: bands

5% of WBCs

37

Normal values: Monos

3% of WBCs

38

Normal values: lymphs

28% of WBCs

39

Normal values: Eosins

1.5% of WBCs

40

Normal values: basos

0.5% of WBCs

41

What role do macrophages play in the immune system?

Phagocytosis

42

What type of leukocytes is first on site in regards to infection?

Neutrophils

43

What does an elevated eosinophil value suggest?

Allergic response, asthma, parasitic infection

44

What is the concern with too much inflammation?

Tissue damage

45

What are the stages of inflammation?

stage I: vascular change in blood vessels, constriction, hyperemia & edema
stage II: cellular exudate, neutrophilia, pus
stage III: tissue repair and replacement, wbcs trigger new blood vessel, growth & scar tissue formation

46

Define agglutination.

Antibody-antigen complex

47

Define immune globulins.

antibodies

48

What is the time frame for hyperacute transplant rejection?

Hours to days

49

Define thrombocytopenia.

Platelet deficiency