Flashcards in Sleep Deck (35):
Which area of the brain controls alertness and wakefulness?
Reticular Activating System (RAS)
Which area of the brain produces sleep?
Bulbar Synchronizing Region (BSR)
Which area of the brain is the major sleep center that controls waking and sleeping?
Which group of hormones are released to promote wakefulness?
Catecholamines (released from the RAS)
Which hormone is released by the brain to produce sleep?
Serotonin (from the BSR)
What happens to a person's vitals and muscle tone during NREM sleep?
They decrease; average P 60, R 12
Define NREM Stage I.
Lightest level of sleep; easily aroused, may feel as if person was daydreaming when awakened
Define NREM Stage II.
Period of sound sleep; arousal remains easy
Define NREM Stage III.
Initial stage of deep sleep; sleeper is difficult to arouse; vital signs decline but remain regular
Define NREM Stage IV.
Deepest stage of sleep; vital signs are considerably lower than during wakefulness; sleep walking and enuresis occur during this stage
Define REM sleep.
Rapid Eye Movement; characterized by vivid, full-color dreaming; difficult to arouse sleeper; fluctuating or increased vitals, muscle tone and gastric secretions
What are the stages of the sleep cycle?
NREM 1, NREM 2, NREM 3, NREM 4, REM, NREM 4, NREM 3, NREM 2, NREM 3.....
Which stage(s) of sleep do dreams occur in?
Both REM and NREM, however they are more vivid in the REM stage
Restless leg syndrome; causes an itching sensation deep in the muscles, which is only relieved by moving the legs
What type of interventions might be helpful in a patient with peptic ulcer disease?
Milk, tums, HOB >30 degrees
Inability to fall asleep
Undesirable behaviors that occur during sleep
Define sleep hygiene.
Practice that one associates with sleep
Inadequacy in quantity or quality of sleep
What are the two major risk factors for OSA?
Obesity and hypertension
If a patient has had a previous MI, he/she is also at risk for another MI during which sleep stage?
If a pt has a history of epilepsy, the patient is more at risk for what?
70% more at risk for seizures during sleep
What is the most common complaint of a patient with OSA?
Excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS)
Obstructive sleep apnea; causes apnea for periods of 10 seconds to 2 minutes during sleep
Central sleep apnea; dysfunction in the respiratory control center of the brain, in which the impulse to breathe temporarily fails
Dysfunctions of mechanisms that regulate sleep and wake states
What symptom(s) are present with hypothyroidism?
Night sweats, heart palpitations
What symptom(s) are present with hyperthyroidism?
Inability to fall asleep
What effects do liver failure and encephalitis have on a person's sleep pattern?
More sleepy during the day, more awake during the night
How many hours per day does an infant usually require?
15 hours per day (8-10 hours during the night)
How many hours of sleep per night does a toddler usually require?
12 hours per night
What type of foods can be encouraged near bedtime to promote sleep?
Foods with the protein L-tryptophan (milk, cheese, meats)
Who can report whether sleep was sufficient or restful?
Only the patient
When should you refer a patient to the sleep clinic?
After the patient has been having sleep problems for at least 6 mo