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Flashcards in Hemolytic Anemias Deck (50)
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1

What results from hemolytic anemia?

RBC destruction leading to loss of RBC mass and release of cellular contents

2

Inherited/intrinsic hemolytic anemias

RBC membrane disorders
RBC enzyme deficiencies
Hemoglobinopathies

3

Acquired/extrainsic hemolytic anemias

autoimmune (ab mediated)
mechanical trauma
infections
chemical
splenic sequestration

4

What is extravascular hemolysis?

spleen, liver, and bone marrow degradation of RBCs

5

What is intravascular hemolysis?

destruction of RBCs w/in the vessels

6

RBC membrane d/o

extra

7

RBC enzyme d/o

extra
intra

8

sickle cell anemia

extra
intra

9

thalassemia

extra

10

autoimmune hemolysis

extra (ab)
intra (complement)

11

PNH

intra

12

Mechanical

intra

13

malaria

intra

14

Lab findings w/hemolysis

normocytic anemia
reticulocytosis
increased LDH, AST, K+
bilirubinemia
hemoglobinemia (free Hb in plasma)--> decreased haptoglobin

15

Causes of hemoglobinuria

intravascular
it's Hb not scavenged by haptoglobin

16

what is hemosiderinuria?

intravascular
iron deposits in renal epithelium then shed in urine

17

Common symptoms of all hemolytic anemias

anemia
hyperbilirubinemia

18

Symptoms of acute decrease in Hb

restlessness, anxiety, DOE, syncope, confusion (by increasing age)

19

Clinical features of hyperbilirubinemia

jaundice
icterus
gallstones (pigmented)

20

Rare complications of hemolytic anemia

pigment induced kidney injury
folate deficiency due to increased utilization
increased risk of venous and arterial thrombosis (esp atypical sites)

21

What disease do you get chipmunk facies with?

beta thal major

22

What disease do you see asplenia with?

sickle cell

23

When do you see splenomegaly, hepatomegaly related to exrtra medullary hematopoiesis?

thal, PK deficiency, hereditary spherocytosis

24

When do you see microangiopathic hemolytic anemia? (7 diseases)

TTP
HUS
DIC
malignant hypertension
CREST syndrome
vasculitis
HELLP syndrome

25

Causes of spherocytic hemolytic anemia (2)

hereditary pherocytosis
autoimmune hemolytic anemia (AIHA)
-warm
-cold

26

What is the most common inherited hemolytic anemia in the US?

hereditary spherocytosis

27

Mutations in hereditary spherocytosis?

ankyrin (most common)
spectrin
band3

28

Complications of HS?

gallstones, jaundice
aplastic crisis (parvo b19)
splenectomy

29

AIHAs qualifying feature

host antibodies reactive with autologous RBCs
shortened in vivo RBC survival

30

Warm AIHA features

idiopathic
secondary-lymphoprolypherative disoders, AI disorders, non hematopoietic neoplasms, drugs
IgG