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Flashcards in Intro to Anemia Deck (39)
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1

Define anemia

decreased O2 carrying capacity of the blood
symptom of other diseases, not a disease itself

2

How to we measure/test for anemia?

decreased Hb concentration of blood

3

Main Functional consequences of anemia?

decreased oxygen delivery to tissue
tissue hypoxia in severe cases

4

6 compensatory mechanisms in anemia

increased 2,3 DPG
shunting of blood from non-vital to vital areas
increased CO
increased RR
increased red cell production
increased plasma volume

5

Main Symptoms

weakness, fatigue, marrow expansion/bony abnormalities, pallor, tachycardia, DOE
*symptoms more severe with rapid onset

6

Functional Classification of Anemias

blood loss
decreased production
accelerated destruction

7

Morphologic Classification of Anemias

microcytic (normo or hypochromic)
Normochromic/normocytic
macrocytic

8

Measurements related to red cell mass (3)

Hb, Hematocrit, RBC count

9

Measurements related to characteristics of the red cells (RBC "indices")

MCV, MCH, MCHC, RDW

10

Microcytic anemia DD (3)

iron deficiency, thalassemia, ACD

11

Macrocytic anemia DD (2)

megaloblastic (impaired DNA synthesis)
-B12/folate defic, drugs, MDS
non-megaloblastic
-reticulocytosis, liver disease, hypothyroidism, drugs

12

Causes of spherocytes

hereditary spherocytosis, autoimmune hemolytic anemia

13

causes of target cells

liver disease, splenectomy, hemoglobinopathies

14

causes of elliptocytes (ovalocytes)

hereditary elliptocytosis, megaloblastic anemia, iron deficiency, myelofibrosis

15

causes of teardrop cells

megaloblastic anemia, myelofibrosis, extramedullary hematopoiesis

16

causes of sicked cells

sickle cell disease

17

causes of fragments/schistocytes

TTP, DIC, malignant HTN

18

causes of bite cells

oxidant hemolysis (ie/G6PD deficiency)

19

term for red cell size variablility

anisocytosis

20

anisocytosis, microcytosis, hypochromia

iron deficiency anemia

21

causes of howell-jolly bodies (nuclear fragments)

splenectomy, megaloblastic anemia

22

causes of pappenheimer bodies (iron granules)

splenectomy, iron overload

23

causes of basophilic stippling (coarse)

talassemias, MDS, lead poisoning

24

causes of Hb C crystals

HbCC disease, HbSC disease

25

Cause of rouleaux

decreased repulsive forces between RBCs
occurs w/increased serum proteins

26

Causes of aggluination

IgM RBC antibodies (cold agglutinins)

27

Causes of hypersegmented neutrophil

megaloblastic anemia

28

After blood loss when does reticulocyte count increase and peak?

increases after 2-3 days
peaks after 7-10 days

29

RBC production sites throughout developments

embryo:yolk sac
fetus: liver
shortly after birth-rest of life: bone marrow

30

Where do normoblasts obtain iron from?

plasma transferrin for Hb synthesis