Intro to Anemia Flashcards Preview

Heme/Lymph > Intro to Anemia > Flashcards

Flashcards in Intro to Anemia Deck (39):
1

Define anemia

decreased O2 carrying capacity of the blood
symptom of other diseases, not a disease itself

2

How to we measure/test for anemia?

decreased Hb concentration of blood

3

Main Functional consequences of anemia?

decreased oxygen delivery to tissue
tissue hypoxia in severe cases

4

6 compensatory mechanisms in anemia

increased 2,3 DPG
shunting of blood from non-vital to vital areas
increased CO
increased RR
increased red cell production
increased plasma volume

5

Main Symptoms

weakness, fatigue, marrow expansion/bony abnormalities, pallor, tachycardia, DOE
*symptoms more severe with rapid onset

6

Functional Classification of Anemias

blood loss
decreased production
accelerated destruction

7

Morphologic Classification of Anemias

microcytic (normo or hypochromic)
Normochromic/normocytic
macrocytic

8

Measurements related to red cell mass (3)

Hb, Hematocrit, RBC count

9

Measurements related to characteristics of the red cells (RBC "indices")

MCV, MCH, MCHC, RDW

10

Microcytic anemia DD (3)

iron deficiency, thalassemia, ACD

11

Macrocytic anemia DD (2)

megaloblastic (impaired DNA synthesis)
-B12/folate defic, drugs, MDS
non-megaloblastic
-reticulocytosis, liver disease, hypothyroidism, drugs

12

Causes of spherocytes

hereditary spherocytosis, autoimmune hemolytic anemia

13

causes of target cells

liver disease, splenectomy, hemoglobinopathies

14

causes of elliptocytes (ovalocytes)

hereditary elliptocytosis, megaloblastic anemia, iron deficiency, myelofibrosis

15

causes of teardrop cells

megaloblastic anemia, myelofibrosis, extramedullary hematopoiesis

16

causes of sicked cells

sickle cell disease

17

causes of fragments/schistocytes

TTP, DIC, malignant HTN

18

causes of bite cells

oxidant hemolysis (ie/G6PD deficiency)

19

term for red cell size variablility

anisocytosis

20

anisocytosis, microcytosis, hypochromia

iron deficiency anemia

21

causes of howell-jolly bodies (nuclear fragments)

splenectomy, megaloblastic anemia

22

causes of pappenheimer bodies (iron granules)

splenectomy, iron overload

23

causes of basophilic stippling (coarse)

talassemias, MDS, lead poisoning

24

causes of Hb C crystals

HbCC disease, HbSC disease

25

Cause of rouleaux

decreased repulsive forces between RBCs
occurs w/increased serum proteins

26

Causes of aggluination

IgM RBC antibodies (cold agglutinins)

27

Causes of hypersegmented neutrophil

megaloblastic anemia

28

After blood loss when does reticulocyte count increase and peak?

increases after 2-3 days
peaks after 7-10 days

29

RBC production sites throughout developments

embryo:yolk sac
fetus: liver
shortly after birth-rest of life: bone marrow

30

Where do normoblasts obtain iron from?

plasma transferrin for Hb synthesis

31

What gives reticulocytes their blueish tinge?

residual RNA

32

What are causes of decreased RBC production?

ineffective erythropoeisis
decreased RBC precursors
anemia of chronic disease

33

Ineffective erythropoiesis examples

iron deficiency
megaloblastic
MDS

34

Ineffective erythropoiesis features

increased RDW
dysmaturation of precursors in marrow
decreased RC
inappropriately increased iron absorption from gut

35

Decreased RBC precursors features

defects in proliferation, stem cell defects with adequate erythropoietin

36

Decreased RBC precursors causes

congenital or acquired
red cell aplasia or pan aplasia
amrrow replacement, decreased EPO

37

Normal RBC destruction

after ~120 days
intravascular: breach of membrane in circulation, low freq under normal conditions
extravascular: clearance in reticuloendothelial system as a result of RBC senescence

38

Does hemolysis always cause anemia?

No, can have hemolysis wihout anemia if bone marrow is able to compensate

39

Why does extravascular hemolysis occur?

due to decreased RBC deformability, can't traverse slits in splenic cords and sinusoids, damaged by splenic cordal env, phogcytized by cordal macrophages