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Flashcards in Henry 8 Revolution - The English Reformation Deck (16)
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View of C.S.L. Davies on the religious change?

'Most of those involved in bringing about the reformation, including the king himself, had little understanding of the implications of what they were doing'


What was Henry awarded by the pope in 1521?

Fidei defensor. As a reward for his defence of the church


What were Henry's words in 1515?

'The kings of England in time last have never had any superior but God alone'


Why did Henry want a break from Rome? (Pope)

He showed himself determined that the popes power would not undermine his own In England

Always the possibility that their power might clash because their power overlapped

Some clerics still paid taxes, called annates, to the pope.

Clergy could still opt to be tried in church courts where their punishments would be milder than in the Kings courts


Why did Henry want a break from Rome? (Radical views)

Radical views were coming into England in the 1520s. Protestantism established itself in Oxford, Cambridge, London and some of the ports

It emphasised people's freedom to interpret the bible for themselves and so English Protestants first achievement was a new English translation of the bible by William Tyndale. Possession and reading of this bible had to be in secret.

Therefore there was some basis for a challenge to the Catholic Church


Why did Henry want a break from Rome? (Validity of marriage)

In 1527, Henry initiated an enquiry into the validity of his marriage with Catherine of Aragon.

Two motives for his decision:
- after 18 years, he did not have a legitimate male heir. Catherine was now 40 and hadn't been pregnant since 1518. In the masculine world of Tudor court, there was no doubt that this was Catherine's fault and she had failed not just Henry but the Tudor dynasty

- Anne Boleyn. Henry was in love and determined that Anne should be his wife. She refused the inevitable short lived consolation prize of being Henry's mistress, so he needed to make her queen or give her up.


Henry based his argument for divorce on what passage from the bible?

'If a man shall take his brothers wife, it is an impurity, they shall be childless'


What did Henry argue that his marriage to Catherine was illegitimate?

He argues that as Catherine had been married to his elder brother Arthur, Pope Julius II should not have given himself and Catherine permission to marry.

Henry said even the pope had no power to set aside biblical law.

Therefore he asked pope clement VII to declare that Julius had exceeded his powers and the two had never been legally married


Popes response to divorce?

Marrying the sister of one of your mistresses was equally against biblical law. Henry was casting off one 'sister in law' to marry another

There is a biblical passage that positively approves the marriage to Catherine


What did pope clement do in 1528?

Offered some hope by sending Cardinal campeggio to England. This allowed the pope to appease Henry without doing anything definite to offend Charles,

Wolsey and campeggio heard Henry's case but campeggio adjourned it


Why didn't pope give Henry the annulment (Charles)?

Popes often granted the wishes of kings as part of the give and take of politics. However the twists and turns of foreign policy caught up with Henry.

Henry failed to give Charles V his support against France. Then, alarmed by Charles victories, he abandoned their alliance. Charles wrote 'the king of England does not help me as a good friend should'


What happened in 1529?

Henry's situation was desperate but not hopeless.

He was seeking help from English universities and pressuring the English clergy


What happens in 1932?

Along came Cromwell to supply the new ideas and political acumen that produced the break with Rome. There were also other influential people around such as Cranmer and Anne, who were pressuring for reform.


What happened in 1932 early 1933

Anne Boleyn became pregnant

Cranmer became archbishop, taking an oath not to let other oaths come between him and his duty to the king.

He married Henry and Anne having declared Henry's marriage to Catherine invalid and that to Anne legal.


What happens in 1934?

Saw the central legalisation of the reformation.

The act of supremacy established Henry as the head of the Church of England. The authority of the pope was banished from Henry's realm,


What happened in the years 1529-32

Henry was applying pressure on English clergy

The king and parliament bullied the clergy into submission, including the charge of praemunire, showing the dangers of serving two masters at a time. The clergy bought a pardon of £118,000 but Henry quickly followed up with a demand that he should be recognised as 'sole protector and supreme head of enshrouds church and clergy'.

Parliament passed act in conditional restraint of annates in 1532 intended by the commons to end clerical payments to Rome.

The Kings growing dominance turned into outright control with the submission of the clergy in May 1532. All church laws needed the Kings approval.