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Flashcards in Tudor Rebellions Deck (54)
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1

When was the pilgrimage of grace?

1536

2

When was the western rebellion?

1549

3

When was kett's rebellion?

1549

4

When was wyatt's rebellion?

1554

5

When was the northern rebellion/rise of the northern earls?

1569

6

Order of the rebellions?

Pilgrimage of grace
Western
Kett's
Wyatt's
Northern earls

7

Religious reasons for pilgrimage of grace?

Concern about the work of three government commissioners (rumours that they were after gold, jewels etc)

Dissolution of the mines tries

Break with Rome

8

Religious reasons for western rebellion?

Concern over William body's church investigations

Destruction of church images

Introduction of prayer book

Wanted a return to catholic practises and 6 articles of Henry 8

9

Religious causes of kett's rebellion?

Incompetent clergy (not opposition to religious change)

10

Religious causes of wyatt's rebellion?

Did not want a catholic restoration ( a contemporary book mentions this but is probably Marian propaganda to divert attention from opposition to her marriage)

11

Religious causes for northern earls?

Did not want a Protestant reformation. Leading nobles and gentry in north were Catholic

12

Social causes of PoG

Enclosure

Taxes on sheep and cattle

Entry fines

Local effect of dissolution

Poor harvests

Rack-renting

13

Social causes for western rebellion?

Taxes on sheep, cattle and cloth

High food prices

14

Social causes for kett's rebellion?

Enclosure

Unemployment

Land dispute (local abbey) with flower dew

Increased rents

Rack renting

15

Social reasons for wyatt's?

Widespread xenophobia

Economic hardship makes people less tolerant of change and more likely to air grievances

16

Social reasons for Northern earls

Many of the gentry involved were retainers of the earls

Many joined the rebellion out of fear for their lives and goods

17

Economic causes of POG

Taxes on cheep and cattle

Entry fines

Statute of uses (tax on aristocratic landed inheritance)

18

Economic reasons for western rebellion?

See social causes.

Inflation

19

Economic reasons for kett's?

Slump in cloth trade

20

Economic reasons for wyatt's?

Decline in cloth Industry

21

Economic reasons for Northern earls?

None

22

Political reasons for POG

Removal of evil advisors ( Cromwell, Cranmer and Riche)

Restoration of Mary's legitimacy

Dwindling authority of some Northern families (Lord hussey, earl of Northumberland, duke of Norfolk)

23

Political reasons for western?

None

24

Political reasons for kett's

Inefficiency of government to deal with enclosure.

Discontent with local government and JPs

25

Political reasons for wyatt's?

Did not want Mary to marry Philip of Spain (a foreigner). A danger that the queen would be subordinated.

Fear that government would be taken over by foreign interests

Local political instability

Younger gentry feared losing career opportunities to Philips followers

26

Political causes of Northern earls

Northern earls' loss of political power

Dislike of Cecil

Military aid to Netherlands had enraged Spain

Mary queen of scots

27

Reasons POG was a threat?

10 000 people joined Lincolnshire rising.

30,000 joined aske for POG

Lord darcy handed over pontefract castle, the most important fortress in the north.

Aske provided disciplined leadership

Government were caught off guard

Support from nobility (Thomas Percy)

28

Reasons POG wasn't serious

Aske ensured that all goods were paid for

No murders were committed

29

Reasons western was serious

Huge geographic extent (23 countries)

10,000 people died

Larger factor leading to so resets downfall

Sizeable armies

Limited forces to begin with due to problems elsewhere (Scotland, France etc)

Gentry lost control quickly (hellier hacked to pieces)

30

Reasons western wasn't serious?

Demands and actions of the rebels not intended to threaten the established order

No march on London

No alternative to Edward named

No call for equality of all classes

31

Reasons wyatt's was serious!

Gentry involvement

Earl of Devon (courtenay).

Wyatt raised 2,500 men whilst Mary's council could not agree what to do

Norfolk troops joined wyatt

The rebellion reached London (stopped 1/2 km away from the queen)

Motive of some was to overthrow her

French support

32

Reasons wyatt's rebellion was not serious?

Most rebels did not intend to overthrow Mary (they had to go to London to air grievances as that was where she was)

She had foiled Northumberland plot 6 months earlier and had popular support

Orthodox Protestant leaders did not get involved

Lots of support for Mary

33

Reasons Northern earls was a threat?

Involvement of leading families (Norfolk, Northumberland, Westmorland)

3,800 foot soldiers and 1,600 horsemen

Managed to control all territory to the east of the Pennines

Sussex had trouble raising an army to oppose rebels

Possible support of Spanish

34

Reasons Northern earls was not serious

Many rebels torn between local loyalty to the earls and national loyalty to the queen

Papal bull of excommunication was not issued until after the rebellion

Philip of Spain showed no enthusiasm for supporting the rebellion

The earls turned back when they heard rumours of a massive force being summoned against them

It was impossible to free Mary queen of Scots

Support was limited

Appeals to Catholic nobility failed

No popular enthusiasm to replace Elizabeth with a foreigner or restore the pope

35

Reasons poor leadership contributed to the rebellions defeat: POG

POG: Lincolnshire: gentry ran for cover and commons collapsed into confusion when Suffolk approached. Sir Francis bigod'/s hare brained scheme to capture Holland Scarborough was doomed to fail

36

Reasons poor leadership contributed to rebellions defeat: western rebellion

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37

Reasons poor leadership contributed to rebellions defeat: kett's

Kett's refused to accept a full pardon on 3 occasions.

fatal decision to abandon fortified position on mousehold Heath led to their defeat

3,000 rebels killed

38

Reasons poor leadership contributed to rebellions defeat: wyatt's

Courtenay weak and confessed easily

French did not seize opportunity to invade

Events moved too fast for the conspirators (brought forward two months)

39

Reasons poor leadership contributed to rebellions defeat: Northern earls

The earls turned back when they heard rumours of a massive force being summoned against them


Philip of Spain showed no enthusiasm for supporting the rebellion

The rebellion was poorly planned and lacked a coherent programme,

It was impossible to free Mary queen of scots

Support was limited

Northumberland has no time to mobilise his tenants

40

Reasons poor leadership didn't lead to rebellions defeat?:POG

Aske provided disciplined leadership

41

Reasons poor leadership didn't lead to rebellions defeat?: western

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42

Reasons poor leadership didn't lead to rebellions defeat?:kett's

Kett managed to capture and recapture Norwich

43

Reasons poor leadership didn't lead to rebellions defeat?:wyatt's

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44

Reasons poor leadership didn't lead to rebellions defeat?:Northern earls

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45

Reasons government action did lead to rebellions defeat?POG

Henry wisely played for time, sending delegations to meet the rebels

Mass retribution was carried out by Henry after bigods rising

46

Reasons government action did lead to rebellions defeat?: western

Russell avoided confrontation

Rebels layer pushed back with help of Lord greys support

Reinforcements of William Herbert

47

Reasons government action did lead to rebellions defeat?ketts

Northumberland defeated the rebels with 12,000 men

48

Reasons government action did lead to rebellions defeat?:wyatt's

Mary's rousing speech to win support of Londoners

Re are and pagets vigilance took the sting out of the rebels plans

Mary decided against the use of (Spanish) imperial troops which would have fuelled xenophobia

Mary waited for the rebels in London rather than send forces to Kent

49

Reasons government action did lead to rebellions defeat?: Northern earls

Government officials contained the rebellion and held key towns

50

Reasons government action didn't contribute to the rebellions defeat?:POG

Government were caught off guard

51

Reasons government action didn't contribute to the rebellions defeat?: western

Limited resources at first

Only a s,all army given to Lord Russell

The loyal inhabitants of Exeter held out against the rebels

52

Reasons government action didn't contribute to the rebellions defeat?: kett's

Small army at first (1,800)

Negotiations failed twice.

Northampton had managed to 'turn a popular demonstration into a full scale rebellion' (inept handling of the situation

53

Reasons government action didn't contribute to the rebellions defeat?: wyatt's

Duke of Norfolk failed to stop the rebels en route to London

Mary's council could not agree what to do at first

54

Reasons government action didn't contribute to the rebellions defeat?: Northern earls

Sussex had trouble raising an army to oppose rebels