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What were Henry VII's priorities?

Sort out other claimants
Have many heirs
End wars of the roses
Get involved in Europe ( Spain, France, Scotland, the pope)
Law and order
Financially secure (land)
Pass on the throne


When was Henry crowned king?

Oct 1485


How did Henry VII become king?

Defeated Richard III at the battle of bosworth


Why was there so much unrest in the early years of Henry's rule?

He had a weak claim to the throne


Why was Henry's claim to the throne weak? (2)

He gained the throne only through battle, killing the previous king, Richard III

His claim was weak through his mother, Margaret Beaufort, who was a descendant of Edward III by the marriage of his third son, duke of Lancaster, to Catherine swynford. However the children were born when Catherine was a mistress of the duke of Lancaster.

His claim was to be challenged by Yorkists who saw their king killed at bosworth


How did Henry attempt to secure his position?

He dated the start of his reign a day before bosworth meaning anyone who fought against him was a traitor and their estates would be seized, which added to the Kings wealth

He arranged his coronation for 30 October, which was before parliament met, so that he could not be claimed that he was only king because of parliament

Henry asked for papal dispensation to allow him to marry Elizabeth of York, a distant cousin, to unite the Yorkists and Lancastrians. He married her after he was crowned so it could not be claimed that he owed the crown to his wife


How Henry's actions to score his throne didn't mean his position was secure?

Although the wars of the roses had killed many who had a better claim to the throne, there were still some Yorkists with at least the same strength claim.

The most important of these Yorkist claimants were two of Richard iii's nephews, Edward (earl of Warwick) and John de la pole ( earl of Lincoln). Warwick was sent to the tower but Lincoln professed loyalty and was invited to join the Kings council.

Henry gave those who still supported Richard at bosworth a second chance

Earl of Surrey was kept in prison until 1489 but duke of Northumberland was released at end of 1485


How was Henry's position weakened by his years in exile?

He spent 14 years in exile in France after the Lancastrian defeat in Tewkesbury, when he won at Bosworth he was largely unknown in England. People thought his weak claim and lack of knowledge of the country meant his reign was not going to last


Advantages to Henry as a king?

It could be argued the country was weary of war and would cup port a king who could offer peace and stability, even if his claim was weak.
Christine carpenter argued that not only was Henry replacing an unpopular king, but a dead one.
Henry, unlike Edward IV, had not been dependent upon a powerful noble to make him king and therefore was not beholden to another noble family.


How serious a threat was the Yorkist challenge to Henry's rule?

Was serious because Margaret of burgundy, sister of Edward III and Richard III, offered safe haven for Yorkist exiles and was willing to fund enterprises and provide mercenaries to fight against the Tudor state.

Suitable candidates who could impersonate one of the Yorkist 'princes in the tower' were found which resulted in the warbeck and simnel affair

Although it is unlikely that the supporters of the pretenders ever gen believed they were who they claimed, they still gained support from Yorkist supporters and also foreign powers who wants to destabilise the country


When was the simnel rebellion?



When was the warbeck rebellion?



Explain the lambert simnel affair...

Lambert simnel claimed to be the earl of Warwick, it was a serious threat as it came within a year of Henry seizing the throne.
Simnel raised support, first in the Yorkist stronghold of Oxford and then in Ireland where he was crowned Edward VI. He also received support from Margaret of burgundy who sent money and a force of 2000 mercenaries.

Although the conspiracy began in 1486, Henry was not aware of it until 1487, indicating his vulnerable position. Fearful of the support the rebellion might gain in England, Henry offered the rebels a pardon and also paraded the real earl of Warwick in London to show simnel was an imposter.

However the rebellion continued which became more dangerous as another Yorkist joined, the earl of Lincoln.

The simnel rising became more dangerous in June when the rebels landed in Lancaster and marched South, it failed to gain widespread support maybe because ordinary people were fed up of the chaos of the wars of the roses or because they disliked the Irish force which accompanied it and its reputation for brutality

The rebel army faced Henry at Stoke, Henry won.


Explain the warbeck rising...

S.B Chrimes : 'it is likely that warbeck a arrival in Ireland 1491 was not an accident, but a result of the plan in which Charles VIII of France and Margaret of burgundy were involved.

The international dimension of plot was dangerous as Henry's relations with Scotland and France were poor. Both countries could use warbeck to undermine the Kings position and exert diplomatic pressure on him not to become too anti-French over their wish to Annex Brittany.

Lincoln appeared in the Yorkist stronghold of Ireland and claimed to be Richard, duke of York. This claim added to Henry's difficulties as he could not parade the real Richard as he was already dead.

Warbeck was unable to gain large scale support, but was welcomed at French court where he was joined by 100 Yorkist supporters. The signing of treaty of etaples between France and England 1492 forced warbeck to move to Flanders where he was supported by Margaret. In response, Henry broke off the lucrative cloth trade, showing his concern as he sacrificed a considerable income.

Warbeck gained support of holy roman emperor, Maximilian, who recognised him as Richard III. However Maximilian lacked financial resources to support warbecks plans and with France more concerned about Italy, Henry was able to act without fear of European intervention.

Henry passed series of attainders against those implicated in the plot. One of those implicated was sir William Stanley, Lord chamberlain of the Kings household who helped Henry at bosworth meaning the conspiracy went right to the heart of Henry's court.

1498, Henry put warbeck in the tower.


What does the warbeck rising indicate?

As the rising was never able to force Henry into a pitched battle, unlike simnel, it indicated that his position was much more secure than in 1487.

The rising also indicated the desperate situation the Yorkists were in that they were willing to support a pretender.

However it was an expensive nuisance and embarrassment as the king had been unable to catch warbeck


Where was the most important centre for trade in Europe?

Antwerp in burgundy, meaning good relations with burgundy was crucial for England's economy


Who had great power and could threaten Henry's position?

The nobles


How great a problem were the nobility for Henry?

Many nobles still owned large tracts of land, e.g.the duke of Norfolk in East Anglia. It was vital Henry was able to control their authority.

As Henry had been in exile, he needed their hell and advice to govern ( they would be crucial in filling key offices and ensuring that the royal will was enforced in the localities). The need for their loyalty was made more difficult as many supported Richard III as they gained rewards from him.

Nobles could provide the leadership and sufficient force for a rebellion, which had occurred in the past

Many believe that during the earlier 15th century they gained in power to become, what A. Grant describes them as, 'super nobles'. However some say that the wars of the roses killed many off so Henry didn't have many to deal with. Despite this, even if they were killed off, they were always replaced by families so they were always important.


How did Henry control the nobility?

He limited the number he created, he only created 3 new earls in his reign, where Edward IV created 9. This meant elevation to the peerage was highly valued when it happened.

Used two distinct methods to control the nobility , carrot and stick. He gave the nobles opportunity to prove their loyalty even if they fought against him at bosworth.

In the past, monarchs rewarded nobles with grants of land which led to 'over mighty subjects'. It also diminished the wealth of the crown as it gave away royal lands. Henry abandoned this system and used the order of the garter instead.


Henry's use of order of the garter...

Henry created 37 knights of the garter. This system gave prestige, not power or land. It was seen to be a great honour for the recipient and was reserved for those who gave excellent service.
Patronage was now the result of loyal service.

E.g. Lord daubeney led the royal forces against the Cornish rebels, so he was rewarded.

However it wasn't just nobles who gained this, Reginald bray and Edmund Dudley were rewarded

By limiting the amount given out, patronage was highly valued as Henry did not dispense it lightly.

The final reward was a summons to either the Kings council or the great council. Membership of the Kings council was a sign of trust.

The two most used punishments were acts of attainder and bonds and recognisances. Acts of attainder were damaging to families as they lost the right to possess their land, which spelt social and economic ruin, unless the acts were reversed. This was effective because good behaviour could result in their reversal and therefore encouraged loyalty.

Bonds and recognisances were written agreements that nobles who offended the king would pay for their offence or pay money as a security for future good behaviour,


Outline of events of lamber simnel affair?

May 1487: Margaret of burgundy sends 2,000 mercenaries to Ireland where the earl of Kildare crowns simnel with a coronet from a nearby statue of the Virgin Mary

Henry offers the rebels, led by Lincoln, a pardon which they refuse; he also displays the real earl of Warwick, who is ignored.

June 1487: battle of Stoke. Lincoln is killed; simnel is captured and put to work as a turn spit in the Kings kitchens

28 other rebels have their lands attained

Elizabeth publicly crowned queen to unite the people

1488: treaty of friendship signed with Maximilian


Positive assessment of Henry?

Stoke was the last battle of the wars of roses-Henry was decisive and brave

Woodvilles were destroyed as a political force after Stoke - Henry had the excuse to seize their lands

Simnel was utterly humiliated rather than turned into a martyr - masterful handling


Negative Points of simnel affair

Rebellion failed mainly because people were fed up of wars, not because they positively supported Henry

The outcome was far from certain:
- Henry showed his insecurity by offering to pardon the rebels if they abandoned their plans
- two wings of his army refused to get involved at the battle of Stoke until they were sure that he would win


Perkin warbeck:
Who did he pretend to be?
Who actually was he?

Persuaded by Margaret of burgundy to impersonate Richard of York, Edward IV younger son

Actually a charismatic cloth merchant called Peter orlock

Supporters saw him as great way to overthrow Henry, probably planned to discard warbeck and make the earl of Warwick king


Who supported warbeck?

In England, sir William Stanley is secretly supporting the plot

Margaret of burgundy and Maximilian support him

The Kings of France, Scotland and the Netherlands do who are taken in by the deception

Isabella of Spain regards his claim as "a jest" but nevertheless refuses to allow her daughter Isabella to marry prince Arthur until the threat is dealt with


Outline of warbeck events?

1492-warbeck recognised as "Richard IV" in France. HVII signs treaty of etaples with Charles V111 which forces warbeck to seek new refuge

1493- warbeck recognised in the Netherlands. HVII imposes trade sanctions

1494- warbeck recognised by emperor Maximilian

1495- warbeck recognised by James IV of Scotland; Henry's spies reveal sir William site key as a traitor and he is executed

1496- warbeck launches an invasion from Scotland - fails when Northern novels and commons remained loyal to Henry

1497- James IV bought off by the truce of ayton. Warbeck and followers turn up in Cornwall, amidst a tax rebellion, but gets little support and surrenders to Henry's troops. He is forced to publicly admit his deception and is then put into the stocks before being thrown into prison.

1498- warbeck escapes from prison and is recaptured; Henry plants a spy into the tower who persuades both Warwick and warbeck to join him in an escape plan

1499- Henry has them both arrested and executed


Assessment Of warbeck affair

Henry is clearly stronger than in 1486-7- he acts decisively and withstands a pretender who had considerable foreign help,even when it coincided with a tax rebellion

Domestically, Warwick and sir William Stanley had been eliminated

Internationally, Henry had forged relations with France, Ireland and Scotland in the heat of the crisis.


Who did simnel pretend to be?
Who actually was he?

Pretended to be earl of Warwick (even though he was in the tower)

Actually was the son of a joined from Oxford, Richard symonds


Who supported simnel and why?

England- Yorkists:
- earl of Lincoln (John de la pole), a Yorkist himself and therefore was eager to destabilise the Tudors
- Elizabeth woodville: Henry's mother in law,who had her estates seized by Henry

- Margaret of burgundy was Edward IV's sister and therefore a Yorkist
- emperor Maximilian: Margaret's husband. Wants to take over Brittany, resents Henry's close relationship to it

- a Yorkist stronghold. EIV's father had been Lord lieutenant there, big estates and influence. Irish. Lords eager to destabilise England to secure independence