What was the Holy League and how was it formed?
An anti-French alliance between England, Spain, HRE, Venice and the Papacy
Henry persuaded Pope, Julius II to enter into an alliance against the French
What was Henry’s failure in 1512 in France?
Henry was being used by Ferdinand of Aragon and the Holy Roman Emperors Maximilian I
Sent 10,000 men to southwest France
This achieved nothing and was a diversionary tactic by Ferdinand so he could conquer Navarre
What was Henry’s success in 1513 in France?
Led a force to northeastern France Won the Battle of the Spurs Captured Therouanne and Tournai Elton: futile sideshow Tourney eventually sold back to the French for less than the English had paid to repair its defences
What was Henry’s success in 1513 regarding Scotland?
King James IV was defeated by the English at the Battle of Flodden in September 1513
James was killed= throne in hands of the infant James V
Henry didn’t take advantage of this opportunity
What was the significance of the death of Louis XII?
Left the French throne in the hands of Francis I who Henry saw as a rival
What was the cause of English isolation in 1516-17?
Accession of Louis XII led Henry to seek an alliance with Ferdinand of Aragon
His successor Charles V sought an alliance with the French
in 1517 Charles and the emperor Maximilian agreed the Treaty of Cambrai
Francis I able to undermine Anglo-Scottish relations because the Duke of Albany, heir presumptive to the Scottish throne, was a member of the French nobility
How was English isolation in 1516-17 rectified?
The Treaty of London in 1518
Became a treaty of perpetual peace- pact between England, France, Spain, HRE
England agreed to return Tournai to France and the French agreed to pay a pension and keep Albany out of Scotland
The Field of the Cloth of Gold in 1520- meeting between Henry VIII and Francis I. Cost £15000