What religion was Somerset?
Genuine convert to Protestantism
Welcomed religious radicals like hooper into his household
What shows that religious policy under Somerset was cautious?
The moderate book of common prayer written in 1549 by Archbishop Cranmer
What were the objectives of the 1549 book of common prayer?
Established a single form for services in the Church of England
Translated the services into English to enhance understanding of the key texts
What was a non-radical feature of the 1549 book of common prayer?
An ambiguous Eucharistic declaration which the catholic bishop gardiner thought could still imply the acceptance of transubstantiation
How did Somerset adopt a more radical approach to his religious policy?
Sustained attack on popular religious practice particularly in London despite reluctance of public opinion to embrace religious reform
Name two religious changes under Somerset?
Feb 1547- denunciation of images in London
Dec 1547- dissolution of chantries and religious guilds
What did the injunctions of 1547 attack?
Many traditional catholic practices
The subsequent attack on chantries and the plundering of their assets destroyed a way of connecting the dead to their communities
Attack on guilds and confraternities meant the crown confiscated money and property that had underpinned charitable activities feasts and celebrations
What was Northumberland’s religious strategy?
To continue the Protestant reforms initiated by Somerset
To plunder more of its wealth
Why did Northumberland act in a more radical way?
Cranmer moved in a more radical direction- 1552 book of common prayer
Edward VI believed it his mission to destroy idolatry
Radical senior clergy like Nicholas Ridley becoming more influential
Name 2 changes introduced by the 1552 book of common prayer
Radical reform of communion service including replacement of wafer by ordinary bread (showed influence of zwinglianism with ‘do this in remembrance that Christ’s blood was shed for thee’)
Ban on use of ‘popish’ vestments as they were seen as objects of superstition
What did Cranmers forty two articles of religion confirm?
The firmly Protestant nature of official doctrine
How did the crown exploit the church for money?
Systematic policy of asset stripping, extracting wealth from the church through pioneering the property of bishoprics
E.g. the bishops of Exeter made substantial ‘grants’ to the crown
After when did expenditure on church goods decline?
What do the evidence from wills suggest about church expenditure?
People less likely to leave money to their parish church
What is evidence of a crisis in religion at parish level (Haigh)?
Decline in church attendance in the diocese of Exeter
Decline in number of candidates for ordination as priests
What did the radical Hooper admit in 1550?
That the lace of reform was hampered by uncooperative public opinion
How did parishes avoid crown attack on church plate?
By selling their treasures
When did the crown start to confiscate church plate?
This encouraged a ‘climate of discontent and disobedience’ according to Duffy