histology 5- blood and hematopoesis Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in histology 5- blood and hematopoesis Deck (79)
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1

blood volume of average male and female

male- 5-6 liters
female 4-5 liters

2

functions of blood

1. distribution
2. regulation
3. protection

3

distribution

a. Delivery of oxygen and nutrients
b. Removal of metabolic wastes and carbon dioxide
c. Transportation of hormones and other regulatory substances

4

regulation

a. Thermoregulation
b. Acts as buffer (acid-base balance)
c. Maintains correct proportion of blood to tissue fluid volume (osmotic
balance)

5

protection

a. Participates in coagulation
b. Protects from pathogenic agents, foreign proteins, and transformed cells

6

2 main compositions units of blood

formed elements
plasma

7

formed elements..arise from?

all arise via hematopoiesis from a pluripotential stem cell, otherwise known as a hemopoietic stem cell.

8

formed elements parts

1. cells
2. cell fragments

9

cells of formed elements in blood

1. erythrocytes or red blood cells
2. leukocytes or white blood cells

10

erythrocytes

• Not a true cell (no nucleus or organelles)
• Main function: transportation of respiratory gases
• Specific formation process: erythropoiesis
most numerous, bag of hemoglobin

11

leukocytes

• True cell
• Main function: protection of body
• Specific formation process: leukopoiesis

12

cell fragments

platelets or thrombocytes

13

platelets or thrombocytes

• Not a true cell (just cell fragments)
• Main function: essential for clotting process
• Specific formation process: thrombopoiesis/thrombocytopoiesis

14

hematocryte? males, females and what if its under this number

% of total volume of blood made up of erythrocytes
39-50% males, 35-45% females, if under this...said to be anemic

15

if you centrifuge blood what do you get

plasma ~55%
buffer coat 1%- platelets, leukocytes
red blood cells

16

function of plasma

mainly water, but buffer for a lot of things

17

plasma contents

92% water
7% plasma proteins

18

most numerous plasma proteins

albumins 58%
globulins 37%
fibrinogen 4%

19

albumins...numbers...size...function..production site

- smallest and most numerous plasma proteins
- produced in the liver
- function as transport proteins for several steroid hormones and for fatty acids

20

globulins site of production....function

- produced in liver and by plasma cells, which develop from B lymphocytes.
- antibodies (immunoglobins) help attack viruses and bacteria
- alpha and beta globulins help transport iron, lipids, and fat-soluble vitamins.

21

fibrinogen sit of production...function...size

- liver
- blood clotting
- largest

22

other solutes in plasma (1.5%)

nutrients
gases
waste
hormones
enzymes

23

white blood cells %

Never let monkeys eat bananas
neutrophils 60-70%
lymphocytes 20-25%
monocytes 3-8%
eosinophils 2-4%
basophils .5-1%

24

blood smear

wright's stain. includes methylene blue and azures which are basic and eosin which is acidic

25

erythrocyte
Function:
• Diameter:
• Thickness:
• Rate of Release:
• Produced:
• Life Span:
• Structure:

Function: Bind oxygen for delivery to body tissues and (to an extent) bind carbon dioxide for removal from body tissues.
• Shape: Biconcave disc
• Diameter: 7.8μm
• Thickness: 2.6μm at edge; 0.8μm at center
• Rate of Release: 2 million/sec
• Produced: Via erythropoiesis in red bone marrow
• Life Span: 120 days
• Structure: Bag of hemoglobin
very strong and flexible

26

why are red blood cells biconcave disc?

increases surface area, lets distance for diffusion of gases, doesnt take as long

27

how to RBC make ATP

glycolysis, no mitochondria

28

fate of old RBC

90% phagocytosized in various organs
10% broken down in blood

29

why is it good RBC are flexible

so they can fix through capillaries that they are bigger than

30

hemoglobin is composed of what

1. 4 globin polypeptide chains- 2 alpha 2 beta
2. 4 heme pigment/group- each heme group contains 1 iron atom
1 heme group per chain