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Flashcards in histology 6- integumentary system Deck (37)
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1

List the components of the integumentary system.
Integumentary System

-Skin
-Accessory structures/Epidermal derivatives

2

Accessory structures/Epidermal derivatives

-Sebaceous (oil) glands
-Sudoriferous (sweat) glands
-Hair
-Nails

3

List and describe the major functions of the integumentary system. Functions of Integument

-Protection
-Sensation
-Temperature Regulation
-Metabolic Waste Elimination

4

two layers of the skin

epidermis
dermis

5

epidermis

-superficial
-ectoderm derived
-keratinized stratified squamous epithelium

6

dermis

-deep
-mesoderm derived
-CT

7

deep to the dermis is what

-Hypodermis/Subcutaneous Layer/Superficial fascia
-Adipose Tissue

8

thicker skin has a thicker layer of what compared to thin skin

superficial keratin

9

process of keratinizatoin

-Cell flattens, dies
-keratohyalin granules appear in granular cells
-water barrier separates keratinized cells from precursors
-New keratinized cells pH = 6.8-7.5
-Most superficial keratinized cells pH = 4.5-5.3

10

List, identify, and describe the different layers of keratinocytes in the epidermis.

-Basal Cell → Spinous Cell → Granular cell → Keratinized cell

11

4 cells found in epidermis

-Keratinocytes
-Melanocytes
-Langerhans cells
-Merkel cells

12

Keratinocytes

-provide a mechanical and chemical barrier against environmental damage
-pathogens, heat, UV radiation, water loss

13

Melanocytes

-melanin-producing cells in stratum basale

14

Langerhans cells

-dendritic cells (antigen-presenting immune cells) most prominent in s. spinosum (found in all layers)
-take up and process microbial antigens during skin infections

15

Merkel cells

-touch receptors, fine spatial details (exact function is still unsure)

16

5 layers of the epidermis

supferficial->Deep
1. stratum cornea
2. stratum lucidum
3. stratum granulosum
4. stratum spinosum
5. stratum basale

17

stratum cornea

-25-30 rows of dead, flat keratinocytes (just bags o’ keratin at this point)

18

stratum lucidum

-present only in fingertips, palms, and soles of feet (thick skin)
-3-5 rows of clear, flat, dead keratinocytes with large amounts of keratin

19

stratum granulosum

-3-5 rows of flattened keratinocytes
-organelles begin disintegrating
-Contains:
-Keratohyalin (converts tonofilaments to keratin)
-Lamellar granules (releases a lipid-rich, water-repellent secretion)

20

stratum spinosum

-8-10 rows of many-sided keratinocytes with bundles of tonofilaments
-includes projections of melanocytes and Langerhans cells

21

stratum basale

-single row of cuboidal or columnar keratinocytes with scattered tonofilaments
-stem cells that differentiate into keratinocytes, melanocytes, Langerhans cells, and Merkel cells.

22

layers of the dermis

papillary layer
reticular layer

23

papillary layer...type of CT

-superficial, loose (areolar) CT
-contains dermal papillae that house capillaries, corpuscles, and free nerve endings
-also provides mechanical stability to epidermis (no sliding between layers)

24

reticular layer....type of CT...consists of what kinds of fibers

-deep 4/5 of dermis, dense irregular CT
-bundles of collagen & coarse elastin fibers
-spaces between fibers house adipose cells, hair follicles, sebaceous & sudoriferous glands

25

Describe and identify Meissner and Pacinian corpuscles. What type of stimulus activates each?

1.Meissner (tactile) Corpuscles
-light touch, tactile, sensitive (feather grazing skin)
-superficial
-horizontal layers in a papilla

2. Pacinian (lamellar) Corpuscles
-heavy touch (pressure)
-deep
-ovoid rings around concentric central cavity

26

parts of hair and follicle

hair
-medulla
-cortex
-cuticle of hair (pigment

follicle
-internal root sheath in contact with hair
- external root sheath
- glassy sheah most superficial in contact with epidermis/dermis

27

Hair follicle anchored by _______ of root and _______ in middle of bottom

bulbous shape, dermal papilla

28

sections of the nails

nail plate
lunula
nail bed
free margin

29

nail plate

toughened keratin "nail"

30

lunula

white half-moon near nail root, most visible on thumb