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Flashcards in Historical Overview Deck (18):

Pessimist view

We don't have free will, we are slaves to our biological system, concentrates on individual and the patients own dreams, fantasies and problems


What did Freud think about humans reason for living

Argued all organisms are driven by instinctual drive to reduce excitation and nervous activity
An increase in this activity is a displeasure
Viewed the NS as full of energy (Q), we live to get rid of this painful stimulation


What is the Id

Irrational, innate, only concerned with gratification of others
Everyone starts off with one, it is the unconscious mind seeking to satisfy certain desires


What is the ego

Rational, conscious
Develops to better satisfy these things
Makes contact with reality and looks at what is possible given the environment


What is the superego

Contains internal eyes morality, moral censor, depends on cultural context


What are the 3 psychosexual stages

Oral: young child breast fed, pleasure, stimulation of lips involved in pleasure (0-1.5)
Anal: toilet training of child, learning to control bladder (1.5-3)
Treated too strict may hoard
Phallic and genital stages later


What are the egos defence mechanisms

Repression: May re-surface in dreams
Projection: project desires onto others
Sublimination: basic desires are expressed in more acceptable forms, rather than direct fulfilment
Reaction formation: where a person has a sexual desire and cannot admit they got opposite to deny these feelings


What are the methods for gaining insight

Dreams: royal road to unconscious, what is going on in conscious mind
Free association: given words, therapist sees what first comes to mind, if they hesitate they are not being true
Parapraxes: slip of tongue, true thoughts
Idiographic: there is a reason determined by what is going on in the unconscious mind


What was too much for Freud's followers

Death instinct- ultimately the goal is death
Everything living dies from cause within itself


Who is Jung

Freuds younger student who would take over and become the leader of psycho
Fell out, believed Freud put too much emphasis on sexual desires
So Jung engaged himself in self-analysis he called Analytic Psychologyb


What did Kant believe

Did not believe the mind was a blank state (tabular rasa)
Mind was pre-structured only because of these we can make sense of the world
Pre-structured mind contains an id which is the same for everyone (universal)


What is the collective unconscious

It is universal and contains archetypes (innate structures)
These archetypical figures occur over in different cultures
Common physiological inheritance of all humans


What are the structures of personality

Persona: social self, way we appear to others
Shadow: sinister side, we don't show in public
Animus and Anima: female and male aspects in others sex, integrate recognise and acknowledge them
Having all these aspects under control and subsumed within, integrate personality become a whole person


What are the psychological types

Introversion: directness towards inner, personal world
Extroversion: towards outer, public world
Universal, biological basis


What are the 4 functions

Thinking: intellectual, rational things perceived
Feeling: pleasant, bad, evaluating things
Sensing: basic perceptual experience, concerned with objective facts
Intuiting: meaning, general atmosphere, rather than superficial details


What is ideographic

Qualitative approach, focus on individual


What is nomothetic

Quantitive, focus on similarities between individuals


Determinism view of Freud

Previous events and biological heritage determine our feelings