HIV Diagnosis and Tx Flashcards Preview

Infectious Disease > HIV Diagnosis and Tx > Flashcards

Flashcards in HIV Diagnosis and Tx Deck (28):
1

What are attributes of the HIV-1 Virus?

Infects and deplets CD4+ T cells
High Mutation rate
Evades Ab and Cellular Immunity
Defies Traditional vaccines
Hides in resting memory CD4+ T cells

2

What defines diagnosis of AIDS?

CD4+ T cells

3

What diseases can you catch as your CD4 count drops?

>750 normal
400 Kaposi's sarcoma and TB
Dementia
200 Pneumocystis
Wasting
100 Toxoplasmosis, cryptococcis
50 CMV, Myco Avium

4

What are diseases that can appear in healthy people but worse in AIDS

Bacterial Pneumonia
Zoster
Thrush
Oral Hairy Leukoplakia
HPV-related dis
Anemia
Immune thrombocytopenia
Neutrosyphilis
Lymphadenopathy

5

What has happened to incidence and prevalence of HIV as Tx has improved?

Prevalence still increasing (people are living longer with the disease)
Incidence going down (new cases)

6

WHat Tx has changed the death rate from HIV the most?

Era of combination Antiretroviral Treatment (cART)

7

WHat demographic has the highest percent of new HIV diagnoses?

Male to Male sex
Need pre-exposure prophylaxis!

8

What race represents the highest new HIV Diagnoses?

African/African American
Caucasians 2nd

9

What are the signs of acute Retroviral Syndrome?

Flu or Mono syndrome 75%
Pharyngitis, rash, headache 50%

10

What is the time frame of Blood markers in an HIV infection?

HIV RNA rises first, drops then levels off
HIV p24 Antigen rises second, drops to zero
HIV Antibody rises last, drops then rises steadily

11

What are the Chosen Screening tests for HIV ab?

ELISA- Gold Standard
Rapid Tests

12

What are the confirmatory tests for HIV?

Western Blot HIV-1
Multispot HIV-1/2 test

13

What is the 2 step testing protocol process

1. Reactive HIV Ag/Ab screening test
2. Multispot HIV-1/2 Discriminatory Assay
3. HIV1 nucleic acid testing

14

What is the age range that has the Grade A recommendation for HIV screening?

15-65 yo

15

What is the difference between HIV-1 and HIV-2?

Less transmissable and Pathogenic
Dual Infection possible

16

What are the Traits of the CCR5 tropic HIV Strain?

Major viral species
Essential for Transmission

17

What are the Traits of the CXCR4 tropic HIV Strain?

80% incidence in AIDS
Associated with more rapid disease progression

18

What are the benefits of the Delta 32 CCR5 mutation?

Homozygous: Much lower risk of infection by HIV
Heterozygous: Delayed progression to AIDS

19

How can risk of transmitting HIV from mom to baby be minimized?

Treat Mom's HIV
Post exposure prophylaxis for baby
Do NOT Breast feed

20

What are the skin symptoms of secondary Syphilis?

Macular - Papular Rash
Palmar-Plantar rash
Mucous Patches
Condyloma Lata

21

What is the prevalence, Tx and DDx of Pneumocystis Pneumonia?

Most common AIDS defining illness
CD4

22

WHich Opportunistic infections require Primary Prophylaxis (Prevention)?

Pneumocystis
Toxoplasma
MAC

23

WHich Opportunistic infections require Secondary Prophylaxis (Maintenence)?

Pneumocystis
Toxoplasma
MAC
CMV
Cryptococcus
Histoplasma

24

What are the ARV Drug Classes?

CCR5 co-receptor antagonist
Fusion Inhibitor
Reverse transcriptase Inh
Integrase strand transfer inhibitor
Protease inhibitor

25

Which HIV drugs have the highest risk for Drug-Drug interaction?

PI- HIGH: Decreases effectiveness of BC pills
NNRTI- Mod: Efavirenz is teratogenic

26

What needs to be dome before putting a patient on Abacavir?

HLA- B5701 test prior to abacavir use

27

What are the components of Metabolic Syndrome?

Central Obesity
Hypertension
High TRGs
Low LDL
Insulin Resistance

28

What are the common causes of death in AIDS patients?

AIDS-related
Liver
CVD
Non-AIDS Cancer
Other (substance abuse)