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Flashcards in Homeostasis Deck (25):
0

Which vitamin deficiency are alcoholics at risk of?

Vitamin B

1

What is homeostasis?

Ability of the body to maintain an equilibrium due to a coordinated response of its parts usually by a system of feedback controls
Maintenance of the internal environment within narrow limits

2

What is fat free mass?

Water, protein and bone minerals

3

What is cachexia?

Wasting syndrome, loss of weight, muscle atrophy, fatigue, weakness, loss of appetite

4

What is unintentional weight loss associated with?

Decline in ADLs and physical function
Higher rates of admission, poorer QOL
Increased risk of in hospital complications

5

What factors affect body composition?

Biological - age, gender, ethnicity
Lifestyle - diet, physical activity, smoking, alcohol
Health related - disease, genetics
Biometric - height, fat and muscle distribution
Environment

6

What is body weight?

Total weight of fat free mass and fat mass combined

7

What is BMI?

Mass (kg) / height (m) x height (m)
Clinical norm is 18.5- 24.9

8

What are constraints of BMI?

Doesn't consider body composition or nutritional status
Should be used in conjunction with other measures
Age and gender not considered
Ethnicities have different scales of normal

9

What are limitations of skinfold tests?

Assumes constant ratio of subcut and total fat
Sensitive to ethnic and age variations in fat distribution
Serial measurements are most effective

10

What are advantages of waist circumference measurements?

Can assess body fat distribution - andoid or gynoid
It is practically applicable

11

What are ranges of high risk and very high risk waist measurements?

High risk > 94cm (male) & > 80cm (female)
Very high risk >102 (male) & > 88cm (female)

12

What is the difference between marasmus and kwashiorkor?

Marasmus - total malnutrition
Kwashiorkor - protein malnutrition

13

What can be barriers to diet change?

Ability to cook and or shop
Money
Cooking facilities
Family preferences
Don't like vegetables
Food is emotional comfort
Lack of self belief
Health ownership
Other people's food doesn't count

14

What are useful methods for helping someone to change behaviours towards eating?

Goal setting
Reward success
Self monitoring - food diary
Stimulus control
Contingency management

15

What is nutrition?

Utilisation of foods by living organisms

16

What is basal metabolism required for?

Maintaining body temperature
Keeping autonomic systems running, eg lungs, heart, kidneys, production of blood cells etc

17

What 3 things are outputs of energy metabolism?

Basal metabolism
Thermic effect of food
Physical activity

18

What variable factors can affect basal metabolic rate?

Body Composition
Activity
Fever
Stresses, Illness
Environmental temperature
Fasting / Starvation
Malnutrition
Nicotine and Caffeine
Sleep

19

What are the 6 essential nutrients?

Water
Calories (CHO, Fat)
Protein (amino acids)
Essential fatty acids
Vitamins
Minerals

20

How many calories per g are in each macronutrient?

Carbohydrates 3.7-4.1kcal/g, 50-75% of energy in a healthy diet
Protein 4.7kcal/g, 10-20% of energy in a healthy diet
Fat 9.4kcal/g,15-30% of energy in a healthy diet, <10% from saturated fat

21

When are the fed, fasting and starved states?

Fed state 0-4 hours after food
Fasting state 4-12 hours after food
Starved state 12+ hours after food

22

What occurs to body stores during the fasting state?

Glycogen stores are broken down to provide energy for nervous system and blood cells
Body fat stores are broken down to provide energy to other cell types

23

What begins to happen during the starved state?

Protein and fat are broken down to maintain energy supply
Ketone bodies are formed from fatty acids and amino acids

24

What are the five F’s for abdominal swelling?

Fluid
Fat
Flatulence
Faeces
Foetus