Flashcards in Homeostasis Deck (25):
Which vitamin deficiency are alcoholics at risk of?
What is homeostasis?
Ability of the body to maintain an equilibrium due to a coordinated response of its parts usually by a system of feedback controls
Maintenance of the internal environment within narrow limits
What is fat free mass?
Water, protein and bone minerals
What is cachexia?
Wasting syndrome, loss of weight, muscle atrophy, fatigue, weakness, loss of appetite
What is unintentional weight loss associated with?
Decline in ADLs and physical function
Higher rates of admission, poorer QOL
Increased risk of in hospital complications
What factors affect body composition?
Biological - age, gender, ethnicity
Lifestyle - diet, physical activity, smoking, alcohol
Health related - disease, genetics
Biometric - height, fat and muscle distribution
What is body weight?
Total weight of fat free mass and fat mass combined
What is BMI?
Mass (kg) / height (m) x height (m)
Clinical norm is 18.5- 24.9
What are constraints of BMI?
Doesn't consider body composition or nutritional status
Should be used in conjunction with other measures
Age and gender not considered
Ethnicities have different scales of normal
What are limitations of skinfold tests?
Assumes constant ratio of subcut and total fat
Sensitive to ethnic and age variations in fat distribution
Serial measurements are most effective
What are advantages of waist circumference measurements?
Can assess body fat distribution - andoid or gynoid
It is practically applicable
What are ranges of high risk and very high risk waist measurements?
High risk > 94cm (male) & > 80cm (female)
Very high risk >102 (male) & > 88cm (female)
What is the difference between marasmus and kwashiorkor?
Marasmus - total malnutrition
Kwashiorkor - protein malnutrition
What can be barriers to diet change?
Ability to cook and or shop
Don't like vegetables
Food is emotional comfort
Lack of self belief
Other people's food doesn't count
What are useful methods for helping someone to change behaviours towards eating?
Self monitoring - food diary
What is nutrition?
Utilisation of foods by living organisms
What is basal metabolism required for?
Maintaining body temperature
Keeping autonomic systems running, eg lungs, heart, kidneys, production of blood cells etc
What 3 things are outputs of energy metabolism?
Thermic effect of food
What variable factors can affect basal metabolic rate?
Fasting / Starvation
Nicotine and Caffeine
What are the 6 essential nutrients?
Calories (CHO, Fat)
Protein (amino acids)
Essential fatty acids
How many calories per g are in each macronutrient?
Carbohydrates 3.7-4.1kcal/g, 50-75% of energy in a healthy diet
Protein 4.7kcal/g, 10-20% of energy in a healthy diet
Fat 9.4kcal/g,15-30% of energy in a healthy diet, <10% from saturated fat
When are the fed, fasting and starved states?
Fed state 0-4 hours after food
Fasting state 4-12 hours after food
Starved state 12+ hours after food
What occurs to body stores during the fasting state?
Glycogen stores are broken down to provide energy for nervous system and blood cells
Body fat stores are broken down to provide energy to other cell types
What begins to happen during the starved state?
Protein and fat are broken down to maintain energy supply
Ketone bodies are formed from fatty acids and amino acids