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Flashcards in Small Intestine and pharmacology Deck (57)
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What is SGLT1?

Na/glucose co transporter in small intestine which takes these molecules from lumen to blood. Na down conc gradient, glucose against

1

Describe blood supply to jejunum and ileum

Supplied by SMA
Branches into ileocolic artery
Which branches into jejunal and ileal

2

How can one distinguish between jejunum and ileum?

Jejunum - long vasa recta, 1/2 arcades, wide bore, thick folded wall
Ileum - short vasa recta, multiple arcades, narrow bore, thin smooth wall

3

What is the risk of proximal duodenal ulcers?

Perforation of gastroduodenal artery which will bleed profusely

4

Describe the blood supply to the duodenum

Proximal supplied by coeliac trunk - gastroduodenal and superior pancreaticoduodenal
Distal supplied by SMA - inferior pancreaticoduodenal

5

What does the Ligament of Treitz provide a good landmark for? And where does it originate?

Duodenal-Jejunal flexure
Originates at diaphragm

6

Name 4 symptoms of malabsorption

Weight loss
Abdominal distension
Diarrhoea
Steatorrhoea
Pernicious anaemia
Hypochromic anaemia

7

What deficiencies can cause malabsorption?

Brush border enzyme deficiency
Poor absorption
Pancreatic enzyme secretion deficiency
Bile secretion deficiency

8

What happens to the SI in coeliac disease?

Lining becomes sensitive to gluten
This causes damage to the mucosa
So the ability of the SI to absorb fats is affected

9

Why does lactose intolerance result in diarrhoea?

Bacteria in colon digest lactose which the SI is unable to due to a deficiency of lactase brush border enzymes. The monosaccharides cannot be absorbed here and so create an osmotic drag, pulling water into the lumen and causing diarrhoea

10

What is Vit B12 bound to in the stomach and how is that different from the SI?

R protein in stomach
Intrinsic factor in SI

11

What 3 things are required for the absorption of fat to take place?

Bile salts
Phospholipids
Pancreatic lipase

12

What are micelles in the SI?

Globule containing monoglycerides and fatty acids
Surrounded by bile salts and phospholipids
Formation and break down of micelles in equilibrium so some free fatty acids which can diffuse into the epithelial cells
Can also carry fat soluble vitamins

13

How do reassembled fats in the epithelial cells get out?

Triglycerides are packaged into chylomicrons which are exported across the basolateral membrane to leave intestinal villus via lymph vessel as they are too big to pass into the blood stream

14

How does the emulsification of fats aid absorption?

Larger surface area for pancreatic lipase to have its effect
Make it more water soluble

15

Which 4 enzymes are responsible for protein/peptide digestion in the SI?

Trypsin
Chymotrypsin
Aminopeptidase - brush border enzyme
Carboxypeptidase

16

Which ion are amino acids usually cotransported with during absorption?

Na

17

What are maltase, lactase and fructase?

Brush border enzymes which convert disaccharides into monosaccharides

18

Which vitamin facilitates the absorption of Ca?

Vit D

19

Which molecule does iron bind to within epithelial cells for storage?

Ferritin

20

In what circumstance would iron storage be depleted?

Reduced iron content in blood eg haemorrhage

21

What are alginates?

Anionic polysacharrides which form a raft like gel layer on top of the stomach contents to reduce the symptoms of acid reflux

22

What do magnesium salts, aluminium salts and bicarbonate salts have in common?

Antacids used to reduce acidity of stomach acid to help reduce acid reflux

23

Give 2 uses of Misoprostol

Abortion drug
Prevent gastric damage caused by chronic NSAID use

24

What is cimetidine?

Histamine H2 antagonist

25

What caution should be taken when prescribing cimetidine?

Dose given to those with hepatic and renal impairment
And in women who are pregnant or breast feeding

26

What would bismuth chelate be used for generally?

In a combination regimen to treat H pylori involvement of peptic ulcers

27

Give 4 ways that bismuth chelate has its desired effect

Mild antibiotic
Coats mucosa
Enhances local prostaglandin synthesis
Stimulates bicarbonate secretion
Absorbs pepsin

28

Name 2 side effects of bismuth chelate

Nausea and vomiting
Reversible blackening of tongue and faeces

29

What is Omeprazole?

Proton pump inhibitor used to treat acid reflux