Flashcards in Kidneys Deck (337)
Name some anatomical relations of the kidneys
2nd part duodenum
Describe the surface anatomy of the kidneys
Between vertebral levels T11-L2/3, the right is lower and the hila sit around L1
Sit under 12th rib with the left under 11th & 12th rib
What is the renal angle?
Between 12th rib and lateral border of vertebral column extensor muscles
Describe the surface anatomy of the ureters
Run vertically inferior to pelvic cavity; follow tips of lumbar vertebrae
What protective layers cover the kidneys?
Renal fascia is loose & kidneys can move with body position. What occurs if they move too much? And what can be a sign of this?
Blood in urine when running
What tissue type do kidneys derive from?
Metanephros - mesoderm
What can happen if the ureteric bud develops abnormally?
During what time frame do the kidneys ascend to their adult position?
Start in pelvic cavity
Receive new blood supply as they move upwards and take the ureters with them
What is a pelvic kidney?
One kidney never migrates and so remains in the pelvic cavity
If there is no impingement then it doesn't matter
What is a horseshoe kidney?
Two kidneys fused and not ascended. Gets stuck on IMA, can block it so ischemic bowel
What is a polar renal artery?
Artery not running into hilum. Squash ureter so renal pelvis enlarges
What is the allantois?
Passes from cloaca to umbilicus
What is the adult remnant of the allantois?
Name 3 remnants of the allantois that can cause clinical problems
Urachal fistula/patent - urine can leak out
Urachal cyst - can get infected
Urachal sinus - blind ended tract from umbilicus, cheesy discharge
Describe the blood supply to the kidneys
Renal arteries at L1/2 (listen for bruits)
Run posterior to renal vein & IVC
Segmental supply (4/5 end arteries)
Describe venous drainage of the kidneys
Right renal vein directly join IVC
Left veins receive gonadal & suprarenal veins
Left renal vein runs under SMA to join IVC
Describe nerve supply to the supra renal glands
Preganglionic sympathetic fibres (T10-L1)
Synapse directly with chromaffin cells in medulla
What arteries do the ureters receive blood supply from?
Which direction should the ureters be displaced in order to prevent disrupting their blood supply?
Displace ureter medially in abdo cavity
Displace ureter laterally in pelvic cavity
What pain pattern occurs with renal calculi?
Shifting loin to groin pain T12-L1/2
What is the main differential concern for an elderly patient presenting with presumed left sided renal colic?
Dissecting aortic aneurysm
What are potential sites for stones?
Renal tract (urolithiasis)
Gallbladder/biliary tree (cholelithiasis)
Salivary glands (sialolithiasis)
How do stones form?
Increased concentration of solutes causing supersaturated solution
What effects can stones have?
Block ducts: colic, jaundice, renal failure
Chronic inflammation: Cholecystits, cystitis, sialadenitis
Describe salivary stones
Occur more in females
Usually Wharton’s duct
Pain and swelling of gland
Idiopathic, infection, drugs
Remove stone – open/endoscopic
Common (10%), more in females
GB stores & concentrates bile
Most stones cholesterol based due to high fat diets/hypercholesterolaemia
Pigment stones found in haemolytic disorders (high serum bilirubin)
Ratio of cholesterol:bile salts & lecithin
How do gallstones present?
How do you investigate gallstones?
Bloods – LFT, amylase
ERCP (endoscopic retrograde cholangio pancreatography)/MRCP