Flashcards in Stomach Deck (63)
What part of the stomach will you likely be able to see on a radiograph when the patient is standing?
Fundus because it is filled with air
Which structure related to the stomach can limit the spread of infection?
Greater omentum as it can adhere to infected sites
Where is the lesser omentum?
Between liver and stomach
What is special about the splenic artery?
Tortuous so can stretch
What does free border of lesser omentum become?
What is the pringle manoeuvre?
Clamping of hepatoduodenal ligement during surgery to prevent excessive bleeding from liver
What are the 3 phases of gastric motility?
Which 2 electrical modalities contribute to the coordinated contraction of smooth muscle in the stomach?
Which phase of gastric motility occurs in the orad region?
How does the stomach expand to accommodate food?
Unfolding of rugae
Describe the mixing process in the stomach
Peristaltic waves move food towards antrum
When approaching antrum, contraction force increases and pyloric sphincter shuts
This forces most of the food back into the stomach - retropulsion
List 5 functions of the stomach
Storage of food
Minimise ingestion of bacteria
Dissolve and partly digest macromolecules
Regulate rate of gastric emptying
Secrete intrinsic factor
Which reflex is activated when food enters digestive system?
List 3 things which stimulate acid production in the stomach
List 3 things which inhibit gastric acid secretion
What disruption of acid base balance can excessive vomiting cause?
What 2 problems can be caused by hypochlorhydia?
Increased vulnerability to GI bacterial infection
Impaired ability to digest and absorb certain nutrients and B vitamins
What does carbonic anhydrase do?
Catalyses reaction producing H+ and HCO3 from H2O and CO2
Give 2 functions of the pyloric sphincter
Allow regulated emptying of stomach
What effect does CCK have on the pyloric sphincter?
How is gastric emptying regulated?
By duodenal contents. Receptors on duodenal and jejunal mucosa detect acidity, osmotic pressure, fats, amino acids, peptides etc.
A high fat meal, high acidity or very hypertonic would all decrease the rate of gastric emptying
What needs to contract to bring about emptying of the stomach?
Contraction of stomach, pylorus and proximal small intestine
Relaxation of pyloric sphincter
Name the 4 parts of the stomach
What is a mesentery?
Mesenteries are double-layered folds of peritoneum attaching the gut tube to the body wall
What does the free edge of the lesser omentum contain?
Contains common bile duct, hepatic artery, portal vein
What does the greater omentum contain?
Blood vessels and fat
Describe the blood supply to the stomach
Coeliac trunk derived
Left and right gastric form anastamotic loop which supplies lesser curvature
Splenic artery branches to the short gastric and left gastro-epiploic/omental which forms anastamotic loop on greater curvature with right gastro-epiploic/omental which comes from gastroduodenal which also branches to superior pacreaticoduodenal
What does gastric motility allow the stomach to do?
Serve as reservoir for large volume
Fragment food into smaller particles and mix it with gastric secretions
Empty gastric contents at a controlled rate
What is the volume of the empty stomach?