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Flashcards in Stomach Deck (63)
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0

What part of the stomach will you likely be able to see on a radiograph when the patient is standing?

Fundus because it is filled with air

1

Which structure related to the stomach can limit the spread of infection?

Greater omentum as it can adhere to infected sites

2

Where is the lesser omentum?

Between liver and stomach

3

What is special about the splenic artery?

Tortuous so can stretch

4

What does free border of lesser omentum become?

Hepatoduodenal ligament

5

What is the pringle manoeuvre?

Clamping of hepatoduodenal ligement during surgery to prevent excessive bleeding from liver

6

What are the 3 phases of gastric motility?

Receptive relaxation
Mixing
Emptying

7

Which 2 electrical modalities contribute to the coordinated contraction of smooth muscle in the stomach?

Slow waves
Action potentials

8

Which phase of gastric motility occurs in the orad region?

Receptive relaxation

9

How does the stomach expand to accommodate food?

Unfolding of rugae

10

Describe the mixing process in the stomach

Peristaltic waves move food towards antrum
When approaching antrum, contraction force increases and pyloric sphincter shuts
This forces most of the food back into the stomach - retropulsion

11

List 5 functions of the stomach

Storage of food
Minimise ingestion of bacteria
Dissolve and partly digest macromolecules
Regulate rate of gastric emptying
Secrete intrinsic factor

12

Which reflex is activated when food enters digestive system?

Vagovagal

13

List 3 things which stimulate acid production in the stomach

ACh
Histamine
Gastrin

14

List 3 things which inhibit gastric acid secretion

Somatostatin
Prostaglandin
Enteric hormones

15

What disruption of acid base balance can excessive vomiting cause?

Metabolic alkalosis

16

What 2 problems can be caused by hypochlorhydia?

Increased vulnerability to GI bacterial infection
Impaired ability to digest and absorb certain nutrients and B vitamins

17

What does carbonic anhydrase do?

Catalyses reaction producing H+ and HCO3 from H2O and CO2

18

Give 2 functions of the pyloric sphincter

Prevent regurgitation
Allow regulated emptying of stomach

19

What effect does CCK have on the pyloric sphincter?

Constriction

20

How is gastric emptying regulated?

By duodenal contents. Receptors on duodenal and jejunal mucosa detect acidity, osmotic pressure, fats, amino acids, peptides etc.
A high fat meal, high acidity or very hypertonic would all decrease the rate of gastric emptying

21

What needs to contract to bring about emptying of the stomach?

Contraction of stomach, pylorus and proximal small intestine
Relaxation of pyloric sphincter

22

Name the 4 parts of the stomach

Fundus
Body
Pyloric antrum
Pyloric canal

23

What is a mesentery?

Mesenteries are double-layered folds of peritoneum attaching the gut tube to the body wall

24

What does the free edge of the lesser omentum contain?

Contains common bile duct, hepatic artery, portal vein

25

What does the greater omentum contain?

Blood vessels and fat

26

Describe the blood supply to the stomach

Coeliac trunk derived
Left and right gastric form anastamotic loop which supplies lesser curvature
Splenic artery branches to the short gastric and left gastro-epiploic/omental which forms anastamotic loop on greater curvature with right gastro-epiploic/omental which comes from gastroduodenal which also branches to superior pacreaticoduodenal

27

What does gastric motility allow the stomach to do?

Serve as reservoir for large volume
Fragment food into smaller particles and mix it with gastric secretions
Empty gastric contents at a controlled rate

28

What is the volume of the empty stomach?

50ml

29

Describe receptive relaxation

Food is swallowed, smooth muscle in stomach wall orad region relaxes
Enables stomach to increase volume to 1.5L with little increase in pressure