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Flashcards in Homeostasis Deck (94):
1

Things that make up the ECM

- water
- proteins
- proteoglycan

2

Define homeostasis

Maintenance of relatively constant internal conditions despite changes in either internal or external environment
- a condition that may vary, but which is relatively constant.

3

How much of total body water is in ICF

2/3

4

How much of total body water is in ECF

5

How much of ECF is as plasma

1/5

6

How much of ECF is as Interstitial fluid

4/5

7

Normal conc of Na+

135-145mmol/L in ECF

8

Normal TOTAL PLASMA CONC of Ca2+

2.2-2.6mmol/L

9

Normal fasting glucose conc

3.5-6mmol/L

10

Normal non-fasting glucose conc

3.5-8mmol/L

11

Normal K+ conc in ECF

3.5-5mmol/L

12

Intracellular concentration of Na+, K+, Cl- and organic anions

Na+ = 12mmol/L
K+ = 150mmol/L
Cl- = 4mmol/L
Organic anions = 130mmol/L

13

Extracellular concentration of Cl-

104mmol/L

14

Extracellular concentration of organic anions

5mmol/L

15

Function and importance of Na+

- main extracellular cation
- largely determines extracellular fluid volume (and thus influences blood pressure)
- important in action potential generation in nerve and muscle tissue

16

Function and importance of Ca2+

- important for structural component of bone and teeth
- involved in neurotransmission and muscle contraction
- essential for blood clotting
- regulates enzyme function

17

Which cation is important for blood clotting?

Ca2+

18

Which cation largely determines extracellular fluid volume and therefore blood pressure?

Na+

19

Function and importance of glucose

- used by cells (esp neurons) to produce ATP
- neurons particularly affected by low glucose levels
- high blood glucose causes other problems (both acute and chronic)

20

Function and importance of

- most abundant extracellular cation
- maintains determinant of the resting membrane potential (RMP) - particularly important in excitable tissue i.e. nerve and muscle

21

Normal range for pH of ECM

7.35 - 7.45

22

Symptoms of acidosis

- dec neuronal function
- dec consciousness

23

Symptoms of alkalosis

- over-excitability of nerve and muscle, resulting in:
- pins and needles
- muscle spasm
- convulsions

24

Normal range for body temperature

36 to 37.5°C

25

Why is body temperature ta 36-37.5°C

Allows for optimal metabolic and physiological functioning

26

How do oral and axillary temperatures compare to rectal

Oral and axillary temperatures are usually about 0.5°C less than rectal, which is core
- peripheral temperature is more variable.

27

Why is core body temperature important?

- at higher temperatures proteins start to denature
- at lower temperatures, chemical reactions slow down, preventing normal cell functions
- as the cells of the nervous system become compromised, the ability to thermoregulate is lost
- rapid worsening of the initial condition and accelerated movement of temperature away from normal leading toward death -> vicious cycle, detrimental feedback loop

28

Describe the body temperature vicious cycle

- as the cells of the nervous system become compromised, the ability to thermoregulate is lost.
-> rapid worsening of the initial condition and accelerated movement of temperature away from normal leading toward.
- vicious cycle
-detrimental positive feedback loop

29

Relationship between distance travelled and time for diffusion

Distance travelled is proportional to the square root of time
- it takes 4 times as long to diffuse twice as far
- takes quarter of the time to diffuse half the distance

30

Is diffusion rapid over short distances

Yes. Due to the square root relationship
- rapid within cells and between cells and capillaries

31

Which substances diffuse directly through the lipid bilayer?

- O2, CO2
- steroid hormones
- anaesthetic agents

32

What is the channel for the diffusion of water

Aquaporins

33

Leak channels

Channels that open/close spontaneously

34

Channels that open/close in response to various stimuli

Ligand gated

35

Channels that open/close due to change in membrane potential

Voltage gated

36

Are channels usually specific

Yes

37

Describe carrier mediated passive transport

AKA facilitated diffusion

- substance binds to carrier on one side of the membrane which induces the carrier to change shape and release of substance to the other side (down conc grad)

eg for substances too large to pass thru pore/channel.

38

Describe Primary Active Transport

Energy from the hydrolysis of ATP used to move substances against their conc grad

39

Example of primary active transport

The sodium-potassium pump which moves 3Na+ out of the cell in exchange for 2K+.
- maintains ionic gradients
- helps regulate cell volume

40

Function of Na+-K+ pump

- maintains ion gradients
- helps regulate cell volume

41

Example of exocytosis

Secretion in insulin by Beta cells of pancreas

42

Example of endocytosis

Phagocytosis of microbes by neutrophils

43

Exocytosis and Endocyosis

Substances transported out of (or into) the cell in membranous (bilayer) vesicles

44

How is glucose transported across cell membranes

Glucose entry into cells when insulin present is by carrier mediated passive transport
- bonding causes change in shape in transmembrane protein

45

Osmotic pressure

The pressure required to stop osmosis

46

What can differences in solute concentration across cell membranes cause

- fluid shifts
- create pressure that can damage cells

47

Define osmolarity

A measure of the total number of solute particles per litre of solution, in osmol/L or mosmol/L

48

Units of osmolarity

osmol/L or mosmol/L

49

Osmolarity of ECF and ICF

275-300mosmol/L

- in ICF, interstitial fluid, plasma

50

What is tonicity

The effect that a solution has on cell volume

- hypertonic solutions will cause cells to shrink
- hypotonic solutions will cause cells to swell
- isotonic solutions cause no change in cell volume

51

Difference between osmolarity and tonicity

Osmolarity is a property of a particular solution (independent of any membrane).
- Tonicity is a property of a solution with reference to a specific membrane.

52

What happens if the osmolarity of one compartment changes

Water will diffuse by osmosis until equilibrium has been restored

eg intravenous distilled water would dilute the plasma and cause water to move
- firstly to the interstitial compartment
- then the ICF
- until eq reached

53

Concentration of normal saline solution

0.9%

54

Iso-osmotic and iso-tonic

If the concentration of solutes on either side of the cell is similar
AND
if those solutes cannot easily cross the cell membrane
THEN
there is no osmotic gradient for water to diffuse and cell volume will remain unchanged.

55

Can Na+ and Cl- move across the membrane readily

No. Need specific channels

56

Are substances that are able to diffuse across the membrane osmotic

eg 300mmol/L urea

- isosmotic because urea does not dissipate in water and remains a single molecule so concentration = osmolarity but different units

- Urea is not isotonic because it is able to diffuse across the cell membrane via urea transporters
- there is not much urea inside the cell

Thus, the solution is hypotonic because its effect on cells is to cause them to swell.

57

How does the RMP arise

The RMP results from the separation of a SMALL NUMBER of oppositely charged ions across the lipid bilayer
- membrane acts as capacitor
- overall concentrations of ions in the ICF and ECF are not significantly affected

58

What does RMP refer to

inside of the cell membrane is negatively charged compared to its external surface

- an electrical potential that exists across the cell membrane and is due to different concentrations of ions on each side of the membrane and their respective permeabilities to it

59

What is the magnitude of RMP

Typically -70mV
(if the outside of the membrane is taken as zero mV).

60

Which ion is the major determinant of RMP

K+

61

Why is K+ the major determinant of RMP

The cell membrane is NORMALLY much more permeable to K+ than other ions

62

How is the RMP established?

When the amount of K+ leaving the cell down its conc grad is balanced by that moving back in due to the electrical gradient.

63

For which tissues must the membrane potential change in order for them to function?

Excitable tissues (i.e. nerve and muscle)

64

Why must the membrane potential change in order for excitable (nerve and muscle) tissues?

For them to function.

65

How does the membrane potential change for excitable tissues?

via opening or closing of specific channels

66

Why is it very important to control ECF [K+]?

Because K+ is the major determinant of RMP
- otherwise excitable tissues won't function normally
- cardiac arrhythmia
- muscle weakness

67

Define regulate variable

The variable that the system SENSES and tries to keep stable

68

What is the set point

the target value for that variable

69

What is the reference (normal) range

- values of regulated variable within acceptable limits

70

Intra and inter individual variation

Variation in regulated variable values within and between normal people

71

How are normal ranges for physiological variables established?

- measurements obtained from healthy group of people
- values within 2 SD of the mean are considered "normal"
- middle 95%

By chance, 5% of tests outside the reference range might be from people who are actually healthy.

72

How does variation in set points between individuals arise

Genetic factors

73

How does variation in set point within an individual arise

- in response to normal activity (within the acceptable range)
- eg core body temp

- in response to biological rhythms
eg cortisol
eg monthly rhythm of hormones and body temp

74

Define feedback

Oppose the change in the regulated variable and move it back toward the set-point

75

4 components of negative feedback systems

1. Sensor
2. Integrator
3. Effector(s)
4. Communication Pathways

76

Role of sensor

Monitors actual value of the regulated variable

77

Role of integrator

- compares actual and set point values
- generates an error signal if any discrepancy between these
- determines and controls the response

- sensor and integrator can be the same cell

78

Role of effector

Produce the response that restore the regulated variable to its "set point"

79

Role of communication pathways

Carry signals between components

80

2 types of physiological communication pathways

1. Neuronal
2. hormonal

81

Describe neuronal communication pathways

- involves action potentials in axons and neurotransmitter release at synapses
- fast
- specific
- good for when conditions are changing rapidly and where an immediate response is required to prevent tissue damage or loss of homeostatic control
- good for brief responses

82

What type of response is neuronal communication pathways good for

When conditions are changing rapidly and where an immediate response is required to prevent tissue damage or loss of homeostatic control.

83

Describe hormonal communication pathways

- hormones released into the blood (or ECF)
- target any cells that have receptors specific for the particular hormone
- so one hormone can potentially affect several tissues or organs
- good for widespread, sustained responses eg fluid volume regulation

84

What type of response is hormonal communication pathways good for

- widespread, sustained responses

- targets any cells that have receptors specific for the particular hormone.

85

4 ways of heat loss

Radiation
Conduction
Convection
Evaporation

86

Responses of decrease in body temp

- muscles shiver
- vasoconstriction in skin + piloerection

87

Where is a decrease in core temp deteced

By the hypothalamus in the brain.

88

What's a feedforward system

Involves detection or anticipation of external (or internal conditions) or situations that COULD alter a regulated variable (or disrupt homeostasis) if some sort of PREEMPTIVE action was not taken

- the integration centre establishes a future predicted value for the regulated variable, compares this with the "set-point" and makes anticipatory correction
- eg getting goosebumps and shivering as you enter a cold environment (physiological feedforward)
- putting on more clothes if skin feels cold (behavioural feedforward)
- putting on more clothes if it looks cold outside (behavioural feedforward)

89

When environmental temp is greater than body temp, what's the best way to lose heat

Evaporation.

90

Describe positive feedback

a response to a stimulus that moves the controlled variable even further away from the "set point"
- i.e. reinforces the initial changes

- vicious cycles

91

an example of detrimental positive feedback

Lose blood -> heart fail as a pump = dec BP even further. Move further and further away from set point

92

Useful positive feedback

When there is a specific end-point or purpose eg childbirth or bloodclotting


- both situations must be carefully controlled to prevent inappropriate activation and to limit outcome

93

Childbirth as positive feedback

Baby moves into birth canal.
Stretch inc
detected by stretch receptors
feeds info via nerve fibres back to integrator (hypothalamus and pituitary)
oxytocin stimulates muscle
stronger, more frequent labor contractions (uterine muscle)

94

Describe the anatomical position

- upright
- face forwards
- feet together
- palm faces forwards
- same regardless of motion