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Physiology (Gastrointestinal) > Hydrolytic Digestion > Flashcards

Flashcards in Hydrolytic Digestion Deck (23):
1

Name the 2 sites of hydrolytic digestion

luminal digestion
brush border digestion

2

What is digested in luminal digestion?

carbohydrates
proteins
lipids

3

What is digested in brush border digestion?

maltose
peptides
monoglycerides

4

Explain carbohydrate digestion

carbohydrates broken down to monosaccharides - starch, glycogen, sucrose, fructose, lactose, trehalose

5

Name the 4 signs of carbohydrate malassimilation

fluid diarrhea
weight loss
borborygmus (gas noise in stomach)
flatulence

6

Name some disorders of luminal maldigestion characterized by carbohydrate malassimilation

exocrine pancreatic insufficiency
small intestinal bacterial overgrowth

7

Name some disorders of brush border maldigestion characterized by carbohydrate malassimilation

exocrine pancreatic insufficiency
small intestinal bacterial overgrowth
small intestinal mucosal disease
disaccharidase defficiency

8

Name some disorders of membrane malabsorption characterized by carbohydrate malassimilation

small intestinal mucosal disease (IBS)

9

Explain protein digestion/absorption

stomach: proteins broken down to amino acids and oligopeptides by trypsin

small intestine: protein broken down to amino acids, oligopeptides, and tripeptides by enzymes (trypsin, elastase, etc.)

10

Name the 2 signs of protein malassimilation

weight loss
+/- diarrhea

11

Name some disorders of luminal maldigestion characterized by protein malassimilation

exocrine pancreatic insufficiency
small intestinal bacterial overgrowth

12

Name some disorders of brush border maldigestion characterized by protein malassimilation

exocrine pancreatic insufficiency
small intestinal bacterial overgrowth
food allergy/sensitivity reactions

13

Name some disorders of membrane malabsorption characterized by protein malassimilation

intestinal lymphangiectasia
gastrointestinal neoplasia
gastrointestinal ulceration

14

Explain lipid digestion/absorption

triglycerides are broken down into monoglycerides and fatty acids by lipases, hydrolases, and phopholipases

15

Name the 3 signs of lipid malassimilation

steatorrhea
malodorous feces
weight loss

16

Name some disorders of luminal maldigestion characterized by lipid malassimilation

exocrine pancreatic insufficiency
small intestinal bacterial overgrowth
biliary obstruction
gastrinoma

17

Name some disorders of brush border maldigestion characterized by lipid malassimilation

exocrine pancreatic insufficiency
small intestinal bacterial overgrowth
duodenitis
jejunitis
ileitis

18

Name some disorders of membrane malabsorption characterized by lipid malassimilation

intestinal lymphangiectasia
biliary obstruction

19

Name the 4 prerequisites for fermentative digestion

reservoir for retention of ingest and microbes
oxygen content must be low (anaerobic environment)
acidity; suitable pH range (6-7)
removal mechanism for end products

20

Explain the anaerobic environment of fermentative digestion

colonic bacteria are strict anaerobes
oxygen introduced in food and water diffuses across foregut epithelium, used by facultative anaerobes

21

What are the substrates and end products of fermentative digestion

carbohydrates - VFA + CO2 + CH4
proteins - ammonia + keto acids
lipids - fatt acids + propionate
microbial cells - anaerobes

22

In cat and dog, what area of GI tract has the most fermentative capacity?

colon

23

Explain succession ecology of the GI tract

there are increasingly more bacteria in the ileum and large intestines than anywhere else because there is more breakdown occurring in those areas